ࡱ> #% !"q bjbjt+t+ pAAuK]l l l l l l l  8 ,   u+"'$El *uu***l l  D****l l  l l l l ** *5Xl l  R6 *ٕTable of Contents  TOC \o "1-2" The Ongoing and Reviewable Resourcing Schemes  PAGEREF _Toc55899288 \h 2 Reviewable Resourcing Scheme  PAGEREF _Toc55899289 \h 2 Ongoing Resourcing Scheme  PAGEREF _Toc55899290 \h 2 Eligibility  PAGEREF _Toc55899291 \h 3 Verification levels  PAGEREF _Toc55899292 \h 3 Appropriate applications  PAGEREF _Toc55899293 \h 3 ORRS criteria  PAGEREF _Toc55899295 \h 4 Criterion 1  PAGEREF _Toc55899296 \h 4 Criterion 2  PAGEREF _Toc55899297 \h 5 Criterion 3  PAGEREF _Toc55899298 \h 7 Criterion 4  PAGEREF _Toc55899299 \h 8 Criterion 5 10 Criterion 6 11 Criterion 7  PAGEREF _Toc55899302 \h 13 Criterion 8  PAGEREF _Toc55899303 \h 14 Criterion 9  PAGEREF _Toc55899304 \h 16 The application process  PAGEREF _Toc55899305 \h 19 Unsuccessful applications  PAGEREF _Toc55899306 \h 20 ORRS resources  PAGEREF _Toc55899307 \h 21 Managing the resources  PAGEREF _Toc55899308 \h 22 Other resources  PAGEREF _Toc55899309 \h 23 Glossary 24  Published by: The Ministry of Education, Eligibility Unit Crown Copyright Revised January 2004 All rights reserved Enquiries should be made to the publisher ISBN: 0-478-13031-7 Explanation of terms used in these guidelines Child/Children Term for young children at home or in early childhood settings before they start school. Student/s Term for children and young people enrolled at school. Parent/s Term for the various names of adults in families/whnau i.e. parent/s, caregiver/s, or step-parent/s. The criteria Term to cover the phrase  one criterion or more . Brief profiles Each brief profile is fictional and is not based on any individual child or student. The Ongoing and Reviewable Resourcing Schemes The Ongoing and Reviewable Resourcing Schemes (ORRS) provide resources for a very small group of students throughout New Zealand who have the highest need for special education. Most of these students have this level of need throughout their school years. ORRS is additional to the teacher funding and operational grants that are paid to schools for every student in New Zealand. ORRS resources are primarily to provide specialist assistance to meet students special education needs. Any student who meets the criteria is included in the schemes. About 7000 students receive this assistance at any one time. There are two schemes: the Reviewable Resourcing Scheme and the Ongoing Resourcing Scheme. Reviewable Resourcing Scheme This scheme is for students who meet the criteria at the time of application but it is unclear whether their needs will remain at the same level throughout their school years. They receive resources for the year that they enter the scheme and for three more school years. The resources are to provide intensive specialist programmes. If, near the end of the Reviewable period, the school and parents consider a student no longer meets the criteria, they need take no further action and the funding will cease at the end of the school year. If this is not the case, they need to complete a new application. The success of new applications depends on whether students continue to meet the criteria. If they do, they are included in the Ongoing Resourcing Scheme. Alternatively, a very small number of students may change verification within the Reviewable Resourcing Scheme (from Very High Reviewable to High Reviewable or vice versa). Ongoing Resourcing Scheme This scheme is for students verified with Very High or High needs at the time of application and where it is clear they will continue to require the highest level of specialist support until they leave school. Information in the application must confirm the certainty of this decision. Eligibility Students are eligible when they meet at least one of nine criteria. They require intervention from specialists and/or specialist teachers for access to the New Zealand Curriculum, and/or adaptation of curriculum content. To meet the criteria they must have significant educational needs that arise from either: extreme or severe difficulty with any of the following: learning hearing vision mobility language use and social communication or moderate to high difficulty combined with learning and two of: hearing vision mobility language use and social communication. Verification levels ORRS has two verification levels: Very High and High including Combined Moderate Ongoing Needs. Appropriate applications Applications are appropriate for children and students with the highest special education needs who are: in transition to school from an early intervention programme 5 6 years old with little or no involvement in early childhood education identified with a significant increase in their level of needs recent or intending immigrants to New Zealand. Next step Please read the ORRS Criteria (over) in detail before deciding to apply. ORRS criteria The criteria are at two levels: Very High, and High which includes Combined Moderate Ongoing Needs. Each criterion relates to a particular area of need: learning, hearing, vision, mobility, or language use and social communication. Table 1: Relationship between area of need and criterion level Very HighHighLearningCriterion 1Criterion 5Sub-criterion 9.1Hearing Criterion 2.1 and 2.2Criterion 6.1Sub-criterion 9.2Vision Criterion 2.3Criterion 6.2Sub-criterion 9.3PhysicalCriterion 3Criterion 7Sub-criterion 9.4Language use and social communicationCriterion 4Criterion 8Sub-criterion 9.5 The following section describes each of the nine criteria and provides brief profiles of students who meet them. Criterion 1 Students need total adaptation of all curriculum content. Jenny: 4 years 9 months a brief profile Jenny is able to finger feed and likes to help with hand over hand spoon-feeding. She drinks from a cup with a spout. Jenny sometimes raises her arms to assist with undressing. She shows no recognition when she is wet or soiled. Jenny has learned to walk in the last year. Jennys play consists of brief exploration with a few toys that she will put in her mouth, tap or shake. She has some awareness of cause and effect - for example, she will press one of the buttons on an animal board to hear the sound. Jenny will look at a noise-making toy presented from either side of her body. She has recently started to notice an object she drops on the floor if it remains in sight. She will look at it but not attempt to retrieve it. Jenny can draw, paint and play with dough with hand over hand support. Jenny smiles at a familiar person and is starting to make babbling sounds. When she is content she will smile and make happy noises. She shows she is unhappy by biting her hands and crying. Jenny meets Criterion 1. This criterion is for students who have extremely delayed cognitive development. At age five they are at the earliest levels of child development. For example, they are learning: through sensory exploration e.g. by putting objects in their mouth to wave bye-bye in response to take turns at making sounds to respond to their names to imitate a simple action to visually track people moving nearby to smile at a familiar person. Throughout their schooling, students will require very high levels of specialist teacher and other specialist interventions for intensive programming. Towards the end of their schooling, the students may achieve some early developmental goals. When they leave school they will need fully supported living, working and recreational/leisure services. Criterion 2 Students need special assistance to engage in all face to face communications. 2.1 Students who rely totally on signing for communication. Esther: 4 years 10 months a brief profile Esther has a profound hearing loss in both ears and uses New Zealand Sign Language (NZSL) almost exclusively for communication at home, school and in the community. There was a late diagnosis of her hearing condition and since that time she has received support from an Advisor on Deaf Children (AODC). An Itinerant Teacher of the Deaf (ITOD) works with Esther at kindergarten supported by an Education Support Worker (ESW) who signs to her at mat time. When Esther is playing with her peers she uses gesture to communicate unless the ESW is available to interpret. Using NZSL, Esther can follow two-part unrelated directions and sometimes asks who, where, and what questions. She is very interested in copying over letters and can write her name. She labels nine colours and can give the correct number of objects to five. Esther meets Criterion 2.1. Students who meet this criterion almost always have a profound hearing loss in both ears and use New Zealand Sign Language (or an equivalent signing system) in all settings i.e. at home, in the community and at school. They need specialist intervention from Advisors on Deaf Children, teachers of the deaf and trained paraprofessionals to assist with communication and for access to the curriculum. They require extensive support from a person trained in using sign language and for additional teaching to understand new concepts. These students use signing not just because they attend school within a signing environment (e.g. a Deaf Education Centre), but because signing is a necessity. 2.2 Students who rely totally on the help of a trained person for communication following a cochlear implant. Students who meet this criterion usually have had a cochlear implant fitted within the past two years. Students require an intensive auditory skills programme for about two years to learn how to use the sounds they hear as a result of the cochlear implant. They need to develop listening and speech production skills in order to access the curriculum. The specialists involved in this intensive programme may include a trained habilitationist, an Advisor on Deaf Children, and a Teacher of the Deaf. Students become more independent after an initial intensive level of specialist support and instruction. For this reason the verification decision will be Reviewable. 2.3 Students who rely totally on Braille for reading and writing. Natalie: 4 years 10 months a brief profile Natalie is blind. When she was two and a half she started pre-Braille sessions with the Resource Teacher Vision to become familiar with Braille and tactile materials. She is now able to recognise most of the Braille alphabet and can write words using her Perkins Brailler. Her new entrant teacher is familiar with the equipment Natalie will be using. Natalie is assisted by the Resource Teacher Vision weekly and this will continue at school. The Orientation and Mobility Instructor is helping Natalie learn safe travel routes around her new school. Natalie meets Criterion 2.3. Criterion 3 Students need specialist one-to-one intervention at least weekly, and/or specialist monitoring at least once a month together with daily special education support provided by others. This support must be to help with mobility and positioning or personal care. Ravi: 4 years 9 months a brief profile Ravi has very little independent functional movement and is reliant on an adult for all his positioning, mobility and personal care needs. Ravi has a customised wheelchair with head support and chest harness. He also has a standing frame that he tolerates being placed in for short periods each day. When lying on his front on the floor Ravi can hold his head up briefly and roll over onto his back. Ravi is unable to clear his throat, his swallowing is significantly impaired and he struggles constantly to maintain a clear airway. When he is fed, care needs to be taken to ensure that he is correctly positioned as he has a strong tongue thrust, gags easily and there is a risk of choking. With slow, concentrated movements Ravi is able to take objects held out to him. When correctly seated at an easel Ravi can hold a paintbrush with a fist grip and paint marks on paper with hand over hand assistance. Ravi meets Criterion 3. This criterion is for students who have an extremely severe physical disability with spasticity or low tone, and difficulties with eating, speaking and swallowing. They may be extremely fragile. These students are unable to move, change position, sit, eat, dress, grasp, or release or manipulate objects independently. Daily care, physical support and supervision are part of their programmes. They require specialised equipment such as wheelchairs, fully supportive seating systems and standing frames, and need to be lifted and positioned in equipment safely. They may require aids for communication, tubes for feeding and specialised equipment for toileting. These students require specialists such as physiotherapists and occupational therapists or conductors. Continuing therapist involvement is critical for the development of physical skills and to maintain physical wellbeing so that appropriate learning can occur. Students are also very likely to require a speech-language therapist because of eating difficulties and communication needs. In addition, students with a deteriorating condition who are no longer independently mobile and have significant difficulties with swallowing, respiration and use of their limbs meet this criterion. Criterion 4 Students need specialist one-to-one intervention at least weekly, or specialist monitoring at least once a month together with daily special education support provided by others. This support must be to help with needs arising from a severe disorder of both language use and appropriate social communication. Henare: 4 years 10 months a brief profile Henare does not appear to understand spoken language. He uses jargon-type babble that is unintelligible and does not seem to have any communicative intent. Henare will sometimes tug on his mothers clothes to get an immediate need met, but he cries and has tantrums when not understood. Henare has great difficulty engaging in or attending to activities, and participation is fleeting and intermittent. With persistent encouragement from an accepted adult, he is learning to carry out simple actions with a small range of familiar toys such as blocks. This has taken intensive intervention over a long period of time. When an adult does not work with Henare he is totally absorbed with small cars and puzzle pieces, and either lines them up or holds them close to his eyes while babbling and squealing with excitement. It is extremely difficult to interrupt him and change his focus of attention. Henare finds any changes to his routines and environments very distressing and, at times, is inconsolable. He does not interact with other children. He will walk over them and their activities to get what he wants. He likes to be outside and spends long periods of time running up and down the fence line. Henare meets Criterion 4. This criterion is for students who have communication and social behaviour that is extremely unusual, repetitive and inappropriate in their social context. They have an absence or severe impairment of social interaction, communication and imagination and carry out a narrow, rigid and repetitive pattern of activities that appear meaningless to others. The intensity and combination of these characteristics vary with each student, but are apparent most of the time. These students with very high needs: seem remote and unaware of others. It is extremely difficult to gain their attention which is only achieved when the student has a very strong need have very severe processing problems and seldom respond when spoken to or give any indication that they understand the purpose of communication. They are mainly non-verbal, may use a word occasionally and lack interest in imitating actions or words often show a fascination for specific objects or actions that are used in a ritualistic way are extremely anxious and disruptive in new environments or situations and unable to tolerate change or variation in routines may communicate their feelings (including distress, frustration and confusion) through aggression or self-abusive behaviour. For some students self-injury can also be a repetitive habit. These students need frequent, intensive psychologist and/or speech-language therapist intervention to take their unusual and inappropriate behaviours into consideration while helping them to engage, be understood, to respond and learn. Criterion 5 Students need significant adaptation of almost all curriculum content. Hemi: 4 years 10 months a brief profile Hemi has been supported through an early intervention programme since he was six months old. He follows the routines at kindergarten with constant verbal and physical prompting. He is able to finger feed, drink from a cup and help with getting dressed. Hemi has been on a toileting programme and is starting to indicate when he wants to go by holding himself. With frequent adult prompting Hemi can build a tower of three blocks, match two colours, and do a three-piece form board using trial and error. Hemi makes circular scribbles on paper using a fist grip to hold the pencil. He can put a spade in a bucket on request when playing in the sandpit. Hemi will briefly look at a book with his mother and sometimes label a familiar picture. Hemi communicates using single words but often uses sounds and gestures. He likes to be with other children but does not understand turn taking or sharing and will take what he wants from others. Hemi meets Criterion 5. This criterion is for students who have a severe delay in cognitive development resulting in major difficulties with learning across almost all curriculum areas. At five, they are learning the skills and knowledge usually achieved by children up to, or sometimes just beyond, two and a half years of age. For example they can: stay at activities with 1:1 adult support solve simple problems e.g. giving a container to an adult to open label some familiar objects operate a cause and effect toy sometimes follow a simple one step instruction, for example, Bag away when the adult models the action use some two-word phrases e.g. mummy drink. With constant repetition, they are learning to: match up to two colours demonstrate early concepts such as in and out follow basic routines. Throughout their schooling they will require high levels of input from specialists and specialist teachers using particular teaching strategies. Their Individual Education Plans (IEPs) will focus on developing practical skills and knowledge for independence. Nine and ten year old students will still be learning skills and concepts usually demonstrated independently by four year old children. Towards the end of their schooling most students will still be working within Level One objectives of the New Zealand Curriculum through activities that are appropriate to their age levels. When they leave school they will require supported employment and other relevant services. This criterion is not for students who have specific difficulties with only some parts of the curriculum, such as receptive and expressive language, literacy and numeracy. Criterion 6 Students need specialist teacher contact time of at least half a day per week. 6.1 Students have a severe hearing impairment and need regular input from a teacher with specialist skills in deaf education to access the curriculum. Helen: 4 years 10 months a brief profile Helen has a severe bilateral sensori-neural hearing loss and uses her hearing aids full time. When she starts school she will have an FM radio aid. Helen uses three to four word phrases that are only intelligible to people who know her well. She also uses key signs. She frequently needs instructions re-phrased, although she understands better at a face to face level. An Itinerant Teacher of the Deaf (ITOD) has been teaching Helen some vocabulary and concepts. Helen participates happily at kindergarten but relies on imitating other children. Helen meets Criterion 6.1. Students who meet this criterion: have a severe (71 90 decibels) or profound bilateral sensori-neural hearing loss, and use hearing aids full time and often use an FM system, and use spoken language as their primary means of communication and may use some key signs and gestures. They require frequent oral interpreting of information in learning settings and need pre- and post-teaching of concepts. Other students may meet this criterion and be included in the Reviewable Resourcing Scheme because they have: had a cochlear implant in use for more than two years, or a bilateral sensori-neural hearing loss in the moderate-severe range with: - a late diagnosis and/or - poor management of hearing loss in their early childhood and school years. This criterion is not for students with a conductive-only hearing loss or with a central auditory processing disorder. 6.2 Students have severe vision impairment and need regular input from a teacher with specialist skills to access the curriculum. John: 4 years 11 months a brief profile John has severe vision impairment. His visual acuity is 6/36 after best possible correction and he has restricted vision in the right field. He will need to have materials presented to him in print size N24-N32. Kindergarten teachers are careful to place activities on a table where there is sufficient light and no glare for John. He sits near the front at mat time and the teacher presents materials to his left side. John has difficulty going into unfamiliar environments or when they move furniture at kindergarten or home. John meets Criterion 6.2. Students who meet this criterion may: have low vision in the severe range with visual acuity of 6/36 or beyond after best possible correction have a loss restricting field of vision to 15-20 degrees be blind but unlikely to learn Braille. A student who meets the criterion usually needs: specialist teaching of concepts specialist advice to class teachers to improve access to the curriculum a desk copy of any work presented from a distance enlarged print a range of assistive equipment orientation and mobility instruction for independence. This criterion is not for students with visual perception difficulties alone. Criterion 7 Students need specialist one-to-one intervention on an average of once per month, and/or specialist monitoring on an average of once per school term together with daily special education support provided by others. This support must be to help with mobility and positioning or personal care. Rosie: 4 years 9 months a brief profile Rosie has low tone in her trunk and high tone in her limbs. She can roll on the floor and commando crawl slowly in an asymmetrical pattern. Rosie can maintain her balance for short periods of time when sitting on the mat. She can stand up from the floor with full support and maintain her balance when standing at a ladder. Rosie is able to push the ladder forward for a few steps with an adult lifting and placing her legs in position. Rosie requires assistance to transfer to and from her wheelchair. She can propel her wheelchair for short distances on flat ground. She indicates her toileting needs but requires assistance with undressing, positioning on the toilet and for hygiene. She can finger feed cut-up sandwiches and is able to drink from a single-handled mug. Rosie has age-appropriate cognitive and communication skills and, although her speech is unclear, her peers can understand her. Rosie holds a felt pen in a palmar grip. With physical guidance she is able to copy basic shapes and attempts to copy her name. Her early intervention team has a computer on trial to assess her need for assistive equipment. Rosie meets Criterion 7. This criterion is for students who have a severe physical disability and are unable to stand and walk without support. They are often able to move themselves independently at floor level, for example, by crawling. They usually have poor hand control, and cannot independently dress, eat, hold a cup, or maintain their stability when sitting on the toilet. These students need considerable personal support for mobility, positioning, changing direction in their wheelchairs or walkers, and for meeting personal care needs. Most of these students have manual or power chairs, walkers and specialised seating. They are likely to require considerable help to get in and out of their equipment and to manoeuvre their wheelchairs or walkers. They require a high level of continuing intervention and monitoring from specialists such as physiotherapists, occupational therapists, or conductors. Therapist involvement is critical for the development of physical skills and to maintain physical wellbeing so they have access to the curriculum. They may also require a speech-language therapist because of eating and communication needs. In addition, a student with a deteriorating condition, such as Muscular Dystrophy, who is having frequent falls and difficulty with steps or slopes, and is using a wheelchair for distances, will meet the criterion. Criterion 8 Students need specialist one-to-one intervention on an average of once per month, or specialist monitoring on an average of once per school term together with daily special education support provided by others. This support must be to help with needs arising from a severe disorder of both language use and appropriate social communication. David: 4 years 10 months a brief profile David is not involved in most activities and has a brief attention span for anything not self-chosen. He completes a favourite inset puzzle of nine pieces. Left to himself he runs a train around a track constantly or flicks very quickly through two favourite books about trains. He is distraught if he cant find both of these books at every kindergarten session. David follows very familiar routines such as washing his hands before morning tea, but needs frequent adult prompts. If the routine changes or there is a lot of noise, David reacts by screaming and hitting. When directed he urinates in the toilet at kindergarten but only does a bowel motion in a nappy. Given a range of appropriate prompts David matches colours and shapes, makes lines on paper and recognises big and little. He rarely shows generalisation of learning in new situations and does not engage in pretend play. David leads and pushes to make his needs known, or screams until someone works out what he wants. He often uses unintelligible jargon and echolalia but names some common objects. David does not join in peer social play, and needs an adult to facilitate turn taking. He relates to teachers through gestures and grunts when he needs something, although he smiles at his education support worker when she arrives at kindergarten. David meets Criterion 8. This criterion is for students whose communication and social behaviours are very unusual and inappropriate in their social context. They have a combination of severe difficulties with social interaction, communication and imagination and carry out rigid and repetitive behaviours. The particular combination and intensity of these characteristics vary but are apparent most of the time. These students: are difficult to engage in almost all learning and social activities. They show frequent avoidance behaviour and require prompting to participate. As a consequence their learning achievements are significantly delayed usually distance themselves from social situations and seem to be largely unaware of people around them although they may respond positively to their parents and other very familiar people often have trouble understanding and using non-verbal communication. They may take a person to something they want but do not indicate this by pointing or gesturing. These students also have severe difficulties processing verbal information. Some recognise symbols and words but do not demonstrate how to use this knowledge. Some use learned phrases and ritualised words that appear irrelevant to the current topic and may have little meaning for others are severely distressed by change, needing to be reassured even when prepared in advance for new environments or changes in routines. Feelings of confusion or frustration may result in sudden changes in emotions. Most students who meet this criterion have a diagnosis of autism but some have another, or no, medical diagnosis. A very small number of older students with a severe mental health condition also meet this criterion. These students need regular specialist interventions from a psychologist and/or speech-language therapist to take into account their unusual and inappropriate behaviours while promoting learning and participation in social interactions. This criterion is not for students who, despite major difficulties with communication and/or social behaviour, can be engaged to participate in meaningful learning in the curriculum. Criterion 9 Students with Combined Moderate Ongoing Needs. Criterion 9 is for students with moderate to high learning needs in combination with two other needs at the moderate to high level. The three needs inter-relate to significantly reduce a students ability to access the curriculum. These students require assistance throughout their schooling from specialists and teachers to access the curriculum, and to support the development of Essential Skills and learning achievements. Towards the end of their schooling many students will be achieving most Level One objectives and beginning to work on Level Two objectives of the Essential Learning Areas. These achievements will be supported by specialist programmes and equipment. When the students leave school, they may require ongoing support services. Sub-criterion 9.1 is a pre-requisite for eligibility. 9.1 Students need significant adaptation of most curriculum content. This sub-criterion is for students who have delayed cognitive development. At five, students will be learning skills and knowledge usually achieved by children up to three and a half years of age. For example, they can: complete three to four piece puzzles name familiar objects in pictures demonstrate an understanding of some early concepts, such as big/little, in/out match colour, shape and size give one object on request and sometimes two demonstrate simple problem-solving use sentences of three or more words. With frequent repetition, they are learning to: respond appropriately to questions such as what? where? imitate a vertical and a horizontal stroke and need: prompts about toileting and other routines of daily care frequent prompts to stay and complete activities. 9.2 Students need specialist teacher intervention and monitoring to assist with an ongoing moderate hearing impairment. This sub-criterion is for students who have a moderate or moderate-severe hearing loss (41 70 decibels) and use hearing aids for learning. These students need specialist advice and teaching strategies to improve their language development, understanding of concepts and Essential Skills. This sub-criterion is not for students who have a central auditory processing disorder. 9.3 Students need specialist teacher intervention and monitoring to assist with ongoing moderate vision impairment. This sub-criterion is for students who have moderate vision impairment with visual acuity of 6/24 after best possible correction and/or a loss restricting the field of vision to 30 60 degrees. These students need specialist advice and teaching strategies to access the curriculum. This sub-criterion is not for students who have visual perception difficulties alone. 9.4 Students need specialist intervention and monitoring to assist with ongoing moderate physical needs. Students who meet this sub-criterion have moderate to high difficulties with gross and fine motor skills. They usually require environmental adaptations, specialised equipment or technology and adaptations to the curriculum in physical education, technology, written language and Education Outside the Classroom. These students require physiotherapist and/or occupational therapist involvement to help maintain their physical wellbeing and advise on special equipment and adaptations. 9.5 Students need specialist intervention and monitoring to assist with an ongoing moderate disorder of both language use and appropriate social communication. This sub-criterion is for students who have both language and social behaviours that are unusual, repetitive and inappropriate in their context, and impact on learning and social interactions. They have difficulty understanding or communicating through non-verbal cues and rarely use speech for reciprocal, conversational purposes. They often have an unusual tone of voice and speak very precisely. Some are very literal, misinterpret what they hear, have a narrow range of obsessive interests and talk on and on about the same topic. Some students have good rote learning skills but have difficulties with comprehension and generalisation. They often lack empathy, are socially isolated and are inflexible. Their resistance to change can cause anxiety and lead to aggression and other inappropriate behaviour. Cory: 4 years 11 months a brief profile Cory has learning and physical difficulties, and vision impairment. With verbal prompting Cory can follow set routines such as knowing where to hang up his bag and sitting at a table for morning tea. His attention to task during group activities is very short, and he requires an adult to prompt and physically guide him through most tabletop activities. Corys best-corrected visual acuity is 6/24. He often brings books up very close to his face and copes better with pictures that are uncluttered. Cory speaks in two or three-word phrases and uses gesture to make his needs known. He understands simple one step instructions but often needs further verbal and physical prompts to carry them out. Cory enjoys listening to stories and can identify some pictures of common objects. He holds a crayon with a fist grip and attempts to copy a circle with circular scribbles. Cory can match by shape and colour, and identifies two colours. Cory walks with an uneven gait and needs to hold a persons hand when walking over uneven surfaces. Cory has difficulties with depth perception causing him to misjudge his step and to fall frequently. He uses furniture to stand up from the floor and sometimes uses a walking frame outside. He climbs steps with two feet per step, holding onto a rail or persons hand. He is toilet trained but needs help to get onto the toilet and to adjust his clothing. Cory meets sub-criteria 9.1, 9.3 and 9.4. The application process An educator takes responsibility for completing the application form. This person is usually a: registered early childhood teacher, early intervention teacher or keyworker for a child, or class teacher for a student. This educator co-ordinates a process where the parents, specialists, therapists, teachers and others, who all know the student well, provide information about the students needs. Applications can be made for children from age 4 years 9 months. An application is made on the ORRS Application Form available online at  HYPERLINK http://www.minedu.govt.nz www.minedu.govt.nz under the Special Education pages at the end of the ORRS Application Form Guidelines. The form is sent to the Ministry of Educations National Office for consideration by a team of verifiers who decide on eligibility. The verifiers Ministry of Education verifiers have experience in special education in the early childhood, primary and secondary sectors of education. Each verifier has additional qualifications in a particular area of expertise in special education. Verifiers work to high professional standards. To ensure their impartiality when making independent decisions about eligibility, each verifier works from a separate location. They are responsible to the Manager Eligibility who is at the National Office of the Ministry of Education. The verification process The process usually takes three weeks from the time an application is received at the Ministrys National Office. Verifiers consider the information against each of the nine ORRS criteria, applying them consistently regardless of where the child is to attend, or attends, school. Three verifiers independently consider each application. After each verifier records their independent decision, they discuss the application (usually by teleconference) and make a unanimous decision. The verifiers record the consensus decision on a national database and advise the educator and the parents in writing. If the verifiers have insufficient information to reach a decision they fax the educator to request additional information. Each verifier independently considers the additional information and the decision process is repeated. If the three verifiers are unable to reach agreement, every verifier independently considers the application and takes part in the decision process. Visits to audit students If all the verifiers do not reach an agreement and the students needs appear close to meeting a criterion, then two verifiers may visit the school or early childhood education centre to make sure all relevant information has been presented. The verifiers then report their observations and review of documentation about the student to the other verifiers. The decision process is repeated and the verifiers report is included as part of the information about the students needs. Unsuccessful applications The Ministry of Education expects that other resources will be allocated to meet students educational needs when they are not verified. Applicants and parents can ask to talk with a verifier or request a more detailed letter if they are unclear why an application is unsuccessful. Reviews Applicants can request, in writing, a review of the verifiers decision. They must do this within six months of the original application. Reviews are appropriate when there is additional information about the students needs. The verifiers consider the review information in conjunction with the original application and proceed with the usual verification process. A student may have two reviews, usually with a different team of three verifiers each time. After this, every verifier will consider any further reviews or new applications. Further applications If a students circumstances change significantly or there is new information relating to their eligibility, a new application can be submitted six months or more after the last application or review. Appeals The verifiers make every effort to help parents reach an understanding of the decision. If, after a number of applications and reviews, the parents are not satisfied with the verifiers decision they may write to the Secretary for Education to request an appeal under Section 10 of the Education Act (1989). The appeal process is arranged independently of the verifiers. The Ministry of Education and the parents agree on an approved arbitrator from outside the Ministry to conduct the appeal. The Manager Eligibility presents the Ministrys position at the appeal hearing. An appeal is a formal process made by the parent or caregiver (and not the school). If you would like more information on the appeal process please contact your local Ministry of Education Office Student Support Development Officer or call the Special Education Information line on 0800 622 222. ORRS resources The total pool of ORRS funding is used to purchase: specialist expertise additional teaching paraprofessional support consumable items. This is in addition to other school funding. Specialist expertise Students require specialists who have the knowledge to advise on programmes in the school setting and the skills to provide interventions to meet students needs identified through the IEP process. A specialist in ORRS is a: physiotherapist occupational therapist psychologist speech-language therapist conductor in conductive education programmes orientation and mobility instructor teacher with additional specialist tertiary qualifications in learning, vision or hearing special education advisor music therapist (registered). Additional teaching Each student in ORRS generates an allocation of additional teacher time to the school where they are enrolled at the rate of: Two tenths (0.2) Full Time Equivalent (FTE) at the Very High level, and One tenth (0.1) FTE at the High level. Wherever possible, the additional teacher has training, professional development and experience in the students special educational requirements. Paraprofessional support Paraprofessionals (teacher aides) work under the direct guidance of a teacher to help with implementing IEP strategies planned by teachers and specialists to facilitate students learning. Consumables grant This grant is for the purchase of small items to support a students needs identified through the IEP process. Examples are: disposable gloves audio tapes materials for sensory experiences. Managing the resources The Ministry of Education website has details about managing ORRS resources in Using ORRS Resources A guide for parents and teachers at  HYPERLINK http://www.minedu.govt.nz www.minedu.govt.nz go to Special Education, Information about ORRS. Resources are allocated on the basis of individual needs identified through the IEP process. Students are funded from the time they enrol at school. When a student moves schools their ORRS funding moves with them. Other resources Students with special education needs who do not meet the criteria for ORRS will be eligible for other resources. The Ministry of Education has various publications with details of these. The booklet Meeting Special Education Needs at School, Information for Parents, Caregivers and Families, Whnau provides an overview of special education resources for students with high and moderate levels of need. This booklet is available through your local school, Ministry of Education local office, or by phoning the Special Education Information line. It is also available online at  HYPERLINK http://www.minedu.govt.nz www.minedu.govt.nz go to Special Education, Information about the ORRS schemes. For more information View the Ministrys Special Education pages at  HYPERLINK http://www.minedu.govt.nz www.minedu.govt.nz for extensive information about ORRS and other special education provisions. Contact the Special Education Information line on 0800 622 222 to talk to a Student Support Development Officer or Facilitator at the nearest Ministry of Education Local Office. Glossary TermMeaningConductorA person trained in the delivery of Conductive Education programmes to students with physical needs. EcholaliaThe immediate or delayed, involuntary repetition of words or phrases spoken by others. The echolalia is generally said without complete understanding.EITEarly Intervention Teacher employed to work with children in the early childhood education sector who have special education needs. Education Outside The ClassroomEducation outside the classroom trips, such as camps and visits in the community.Essential Learning AreasA term used in the New Zealand Curriculum to describe the core areas of knowledge and understanding. Essential SkillsA term used in the New Zealand Curriculum to describe the core groupings of skills and attributes for students.ESWEducation Support Worker the term for a paraprofessional (teacher aide) working in an early childhood education setting. Habilitationista professional person who is specially trained to regularly work with a child to train them to use the sound signal given by a cochlear implantIEPIndividual Education Plan a document that identifies a students individual needs for specialists, teachers, strategies and additional resources to access the curriculum and/or adapt its content. Level One ObjectivesThe first set of achievement goals described in the Essential Learning Areas in the New Zealand Curriculum. Manager EligibilityThe manager at the National Office of the Ministry of Education responsible for ORRS.New Zealand CurriculumThe official policy for teaching, learning and assessment in New Zealand schools. Operations GrantFunding for schools day to day operations. Orientation and Mobility InstructorA specialist who teaches people who are blind to navigate around their environments. SpasticityA state of increase in muscle tension characterised by spasms and resistance to stretchingTe WhaarikiThe early childhood education curriculum. 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Publications

The Paediatric Society advocates for children on all issues related to their health at a local, regional and national level. By working as a coordinated national network of health professionals the Society creates publications for the benefit of people providing health services to children and young people.  This includes providing information to the public of New Zealand on all matters that concern the health and welfare of children, and advancing public education and awareness of the science and practice of paediatrics, child health and welfare of children. 

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