ࡱ>  :! V "(*,vxzėHJ^`bdfx(\& Ż}B*56650JCJmHnH0JCJj0JCJUCJjUmHnH 0JmHnH0J j0JU5B*CJOJQJB*CJOJQJ5B*CJ(OJQJ5B*CJ$OJQJ 5OJQJj5OJQJUmHnHmH 0J6mH 1(&P . A!"5#$%n+ 0&P . A!"#$%n+ 0&P . A!"#$%n+ 0&P . A!"#$%n 16 June, 2008 Ministry of Education PO Box 1666 Wellington Thank you for the opportunity to comment on the Schools Plus Discussion Paper. This submission has 16 June, 2008 Ministry of Education PO Box 1666 Wellington Thank you for the opportunity to comment on the Schools Plus Discussion Paper. This submission has been prepared on behalf of the Paediatric Society of New Zealand. The society is a multidisciplinary association of Paediatricians and other health professionals working with and on behalf of New Zealand children and adolescents. We suggest that four changes be made to the approach in the Schools Plus discussion paper. The importance of interventions in the preschool years, particularly for the most at risk children, needs to be more clearly acknowledged and addressed. Services available in the public sector for treating children and adolescents with challenging behaviour are currently inadequate and need to be enhanced. 3. Wherever possible, all interventions and or services should be evidence based and be evaluated. 4.There needs to be individualised and co-ordinated planning for the transition from school to the adult world be it tertiary education or direct entry to the workforce, at what ever the ability level of the student from the very able to the disabled. We suggest that there are very real resourcing issues, and that these need to be addressed for this to work. Interventions in the preschool years Much of the paper focuses on secondary school children, though mention is made of factors that apply to younger children, such as a focus on literacy and numeracy from primary school onwards. Programmes for pregnant women and parents of young children Many key factors that are going to impact on a young persons educational choices are actually set in train before the child even enters primary school, and indeed in many cases before entering Early Childhood Education. We consider that early intervention is a key factor in families and children at risk of a number of adverse outcomes, including poor academic achievement in later years. There is extensive evidence to support this view. David Olds and colleagues (2007) have conducted a very thorough review of programmes for parents of infants and toddlers. They have found that such programmes hold considerable promise for improving childrens life-course trajectories and for reducing health and developmental problems and associated costs to government and society. Their analysis shows that the most promising programmes are those delivered by professionals, especially nurse home visiting programmes for pregnant women and parents of young children, and that these produced beneficial effects that could be reliably reproduced in different populations and settings. The Christchurch developmental study has shown that the greater the number of disadvantages that the child faces the worse the outcome in later life. For cost efficiency reasons, we contend that while endeavouring to ensure that all students receive a good education and appropriate training is very important, the most intensive efforts and priority attention need to be focused on the very early years of life. More focus is needed on how to empower families and whanau and communities so that children grow up with the wish, ability and opportunity to learn and gain useful qualifications. Early childhood education There is an extensive literature on the lasting effects of good Early Childhood Education, even though the area is very complex. The New Zealand Epidemiology Service has published on this topic, combining New Zealand data with a literature review (2007). Topics include Participation in Early Childhood Education. The importance of these very early years is recognised in Ka Hikitia. Ka Hikitia is mentioned as an underpinning document for the Schools Plus discussion paper as it relates to Maori. The importance of good accessible preschool education should be explicitly articulated as applying to other groups of children too, and again all interventions should be evidence based. Improving access to early childhood education, and improving the quality of such education using the available evidence base should form part of the Schoosl Plus policy. Services for young people with challenging behaviour are inadequate and this needs to be addressed. It is recognised that it is best to address all behaviour problems at a young age, and that treatment becomes harder and less successful as the age of the affected young person increased. To quote the review by Church (2003) The research reviewed in this report shows that the task of halting antisocial development and accelerating social development becomes increasingly more complex, more costly, and less likely to succeed the older the child becomes. A number of studies have shown that, prior to school entry it is possible to halt antisocial development and accelerate prosocial development in 75% to 80% of antisocial children. Between the ages of 5 and 7 years, the success rate of the most effective interventions drops to 65-70%, and between the ages of 8 and 12 years the success rate for the most effective interventions falls to 45% to 50%. During adolescence, the most effective interventions succeed in rehabilitating only a small fraction of the children who were engaging in antisocial behaviour at school entry. These figures also support a stance that evidence based approaches to behaviour and social problems are more cost effective when instituted early. Moreover, the review found that treatments in place in New Zealand in the 1970s did not appear to have succeeded in preventing children growing up with ongoing severe behaviour problems. Church summarises the literature reviewed as suggesting that children with severe antisocial behaviour difficulties are likely to have four major types of special teaching needs. These are (a) the need to practise responding in prosocial (rather than antisocial) ways to the behaviour of other people, (b) the need to learn that other people can be trusted and that how other people react to one's behaviour is important and needs to be taken into account, (c) the need to learn and to practice age-appropriate social skills, especially those which are necessary for the development and maintenance of positive relationships with peers and with adults and (d) the need to catch up as quickly as possible with respect to missing academic skills, especially in reading, writing, and maths. While the research indicates an important role for the education system, there is also clearly need for other specialised services. It seems extremely unlikely, on the basis of the research reviewed in this report, that antisocial development can be halted and prosocial development accelerated using just a school-based intervention on its own. This appears to be because children spend far less time in the classroom than they do outside the classroom and hence are exposed to fewer social learning opportunities in the classroom than they are exposed to in non-classroom settings. (Church 2003). Increased access to good quality evidence based behaviour and parenting programmes should be part of the articulated Schools Plus philosophy. Also, reference should be made to the Ministry of Education initiatives that are already starting to address this, for example by providing more opportunities for parents and caregivers to take part in the Incredible Years Parenting Programme which is well researched and robust. Summary of our position on the discussion paper As we understand the discussion paper, Schools Plus is about transforming secondary schooling and strengthening partnerships between schools, tertiary education organisations, employers, industry training organisations and non-government organisations. This aims to extend the learning opportunities available to all students, and to connect young people to their next steps beyond school. For this to work well for all students additional resources will need to be made available, for example to schools. Our view is that there is good evidence that any programme to improve school retention and improve the qualifications of young people should also address important factors in very early life. A thorough review of what is known about home visiting and parenting programmes, and a clear articulation of what is known to work around treating early antisocial behaviour, should inform such a policy. This submission includes some key references, and we would be happy to provide further information around the main points raised if this would be of assistance. Yours sincerely Dr Phillipa Clark Senior Lecturer Developmental Paediatrics University of Auckland Appendix 1 References: Church Report - The Definition, Diagnosis and Treatment of Children and Youth with Severe Behaviour Difficulties. New Zealand Ministry of Education. 2003.http://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/publications/special_education/15171 Craig E, Jackson C, Han DY, NZCYES Steering Committee. Monitoring the Health of New Zealand Children and Young People: Indicator Handbook. 2007. Auckland: Paediatric Society of New Zealand, New Zealand Child and Youth Epidemiology Service. Ka Hititea http://kahikitia.minedu.govt.nz/kahikitia/default.htm McCain MN, Mustard JF. Early Years Study: Final Report. Canadian institute for Advanced Research, Toronto, 1999. www.childsec.gov.on.ca/newsrel/reporten.pdf THE PAEDIATRIC SOCIETY OF NEW ZEALAND Secretariat Email:Denise Tringham P O Box 22 234 Wellington 6441 Tel: (04) 938 4827 Fax: : (04) 976 4827 psnz@paradise.net.nz PAGE  PAGE 5  Paediatric Society of New Zealand Submission on Schools Plus Page  NUMPAGES 3 Health of our children: Wealth of our nation   78n!I!!"%p&&&'''''(1(R(((((((((((k)l)n)o) j0JU5B*CJOJQJB*CJOJQJ5B*CJ(OJQJ5B*CJ$OJQJ 5OJQJj5OJQJUmHnH0JmH 0J6mH 6B*mHnH mH6B* 5B*KH$B*KH$nH 5CJB*566B*54(4?@AB$%  & F1nH$7$8$nH$7$8$ nH$7$8$@&(4?@AB$%        ab67mn!!H!I!D#E#$$x%y%z%{%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%1   U1 W       ab67ndx dxnH$7$8$mn!!H!I!D#E#$$x%y%z%{%%%%%%nH$7$8$n $*$d dx%%%%%%%%%%%&&&''((((((((( $x$ $ n@& nH$7$8$@&n%&&&''((((((((((((((( ))*)>)V)k)l)m)y)))))))))*!*     '((((((( ))*)>)V)k)l)m)n)w)&P#$ !4$$\u+#$ $  $ !Sn# $ !Sn# been prepared on behalf of the Paediatric Society of New Zealand. The society is a multidisciplinary association of Paediatricians and other health professionals working with and on behalf of New Zealand children and adolescents. We suggest that four w)x)y)))))))))))))))))))))**$ ! ! $h !n#&P#$hchanges be made to the approach in the Schools Plus discussion paper: The importance of interventions in the preschool years, particularly for the most at risk children, needs to be more clearly acknowledged and addressed. Services available in the public sector for treating children and adolescents with challenging behaviour are currently inadequate and need to be enhanced. 3. Wherever possible, all interventions and or services should be evidence based and be evaluated. 4. There needs to be indiv(&P . A!"5#$%n+ 0&P . A!"#$%n+ 0&P . A!"#$%n+ 0&P . A!"#$%n 16 June, 2008 Ministry of Education PO Box 1666 Wellington Thank you for the opportunity to comment on the Schools Plus Discussion Paper. This submission has been prepared on behalf of the Paediatric Society of New Zealand. The society is a multidisciplinary association of Paediatricians and other health professionals working with and on behalf of New Zealand children and adolescents. We suggest that four changes be made to the approach in the Schools Plus discussion paper: The importance of interventions in the preschool years, particularly for the most at risk children, needs to be more clearly acknowledged and addressed. Services available in the public sector for treating children and adolescents with challenging behaviour are currently inadequate and need to be enhanced. 3. Wherever possible, all interventions and or services should be evidence based and be evaluated. 4. There needs to be individualised and co-ordinated planning for the transition from school to the adult world be it tertiary education or direct entry to the workforce, at what ever the ability level of the student from the very able to the disabled. We suggest that there are very real resourcing issues, and that these need to be addressed for this to work. Interventions in the preschool years Much of the paper focuses on secondary school children, though mention is made of factors that apply to younger children, such as a focus on literacy and numeracy from primary school onwards. Programmes for pregnant women and parents of young children Many key factors that are going to impact on a young person s educational choices are actually set in train before the child even enters primary school, and indeed in many cases before entering Early Childhood Education. We consider that early intervention is a key factor in families and children at risk of a number of adverse outcomes, including poor academic achievement in later years. There is extensive evidence to support this view. David Olds and colleagues (2007) have conducted a very thorough review of programmes for parents of infants and toddlers. They have found that such programmes hold considerable promise  for improving children s life-course trajectories and for reducing health and developmental problems and associated costs to government and society. Their analysis shows that the most promising programmes are those delivered by professionals,  especially nurse home visiting programmes for pregnant women and parents of young children , and that these produced beneficial effects that could be reliably reproduced in different populations and settings. The Christchurch developmental study has shown that the greater the number of disadvantages that the child faces the worse the outcome in later life. For cost efficiency reasons, we contend that while endeavouring to ensure that all students receive a good education and appropriate training is very important, the most intensive efforts and priority attention need to be focused on the very early years of life. More focus is needed on how to empower families and whanau and communities so that children grow up with the wish, ability and opportunity to learn and gain useful qualifications. Early childhood education There is an extensive literature on the lasting effects of good Early Childhood Education, even though the area is very complex. The New Zealand Epidemiology Service has published on this topic, combining New Zealand data with a literature review (2007). Topics include  Participation in Early Childhood Education. The importance of these very early years is recognised in Ka Hikitia. Ka Hikitia is mentioned as an underpinning document for the Schools Plus discussion paper as it relates to Maori. The importance of good accessible preschool education should be explicitly articulated as applying to other groups of children too, and again all interventions should be evidence based. Improving access to early childhood education, and improving the quality of such education using the available evidence base should form part of the Schoosl Plus policy. Services for young people with challenging behaviour are inadequate and this needs to be addressed. It is recognised that it is best to address all behaviour problems at a young age, and that treatment becomes harder and less successful as the age of the affected young person increased. To quote the review by Church (2003)  The research reviewed in this report shows that the task of halting antisocial development and accelerating social development becomes increasingly more complex, more costly, and less likely to succeed the older the child becomes. A number of studies have shown that, prior to school entry it is possible to halt antisocial development and accelerate prosocial development in 75% to 80% of antisocial children. Between the ages of 5 and 7 years, the success rate of the most effective interventions drops to 65-70%, and between the ages of 8 and 12 years the success rate for the most effective interventions falls to 45% to 50%. During adolescence, the most effective interventions succeed in rehabilitating only a small fraction of the children who were engaging in antisocial behaviour at school entry. These figures also support a stance that evidence based approaches to behaviour and social problems are more cost effective when instituted early. Moreover, the review found that treatments in place in New Zealand in the 1970s did not appear to have succeeded in preventing children growing up with ongoing severe behaviour problems. Church summarises the literature reviewed as suggesting that  children with severe antisocial behaviour difficulties are likely to have four major types of special teaching needs. These are (a) the need to practise responding in prosocial (rather than antisocial) ways to the behaviour of other people, (b) the need to learn that other people can be trusted and that how other people react to one's behaviour is important and needs to be taken into account, (c) the need to learn and to practice age-appropriate social skills, especially those which are necessary for the development and maintenance of positive relationships with peers and with adults and (d) the need to catch up as quickly as possible with respect to missing academic skills, especially in reading, writing, and maths. While the research indicates an important role for the education system, there is also clearly need for other specialised services.  It seems extremely unlikely, on the basis of the research reviewed in this report, that antisocial development can be halted and prosocial development accelerated using just a school-based intervention on its own. This appears to be because children spend far less time in the classroom than they do outside the classroom and hence are exposed to fewer social learning opportunities in the classroom than they are exposed to in non-classroom settings. (Church 2003). Increased access to good quality evidence based behaviour and parenting programmes should be part of the articulated Schools Plus philosophy. Also, reference should be made to the Ministry of Education initiatives that are already starting to address this, for example by providing more opportunities for parents and caregivers to take part in the Incredible Years Parenting Programme which is well researched and robust. Summary of our position on the discussion paper As we understand the discussion paper, Schools Plus is about transforming secondary schooling and strengthening partnerships between schools, tertiary education organisations, employers, industry training organisations and non-government organisations. This aims to extend the learning opportunities available to all students, and to connect young people to their next steps beyond school. For this to work well for all students additional resources will need to be made available, for example to schools. Our view is that there is good evidence that any programme to improve school retention and improve the qualifications of young people should also address important factors in very early life. A thorough review of what is known about home visiting and parenting programmes, and a clear articulation of what is known to work around treating early antisocial behaviour, should inform such a policy. This submission includes some key references, and we would be happy to provide further information around the main points raised if this would be of assistance. Yours sincerely Dr Phillipa Clark Senior Lecturer Developmental Paediatrics University of Auckland Appendix 1 References: Church Report - The Definition, Diagnosis and Treatment of Children and Youth with Severe Behaviour Difficulties. New Zealand Ministry of Education. 2003.http://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/publications/special_education/15171 Craig E, Jackson C, Han DY, NZCYES Steering Committee. Monitoring the Health of New Zealand Children and Young People: Indicator Handbook. 2007. Auckland: Paediatric Society of New Zealand, New Zealand Child and Youth Epidemiology Service. Ka Hititea http://kahikitia.minedu.govt.nz/kahikitia/default.htm McCain MN, Mustard JF. Early Years Study: Final Report. Canadian institute for Advanced Research, Toronto, 1999. www.childsec.gov.on.ca/newsrel/reporten.pdf THE PAEDIATRIC SOCIETY OF NEW ZEALAND Secretariat Email:Denise Tringham P O Box 22 234 Wellington 6441 Tel: (04) 938 4827 Fax: : (04) 976 4827 psnz@paradise.net.nz PAGE  PAGE 1  Paediatric Society of New Zealand Submission on Schools Plus Page  NUMPAGES 5  Health of our children: Wealth of our nation tvfhprtvxz|  ""("\"R&T&$)&)))ndx dx)2 2 244::??BBHCJC@GBG`JbJKKKKKKKKK $*$d dxnKKNL|LLLLLLLLLNNdPfPPP(R*R,R.R2R~RR $x$ $ n@&n@&nRRRRRRRRR S4SdSSSSSS&P#$ !4$$\u+#$ $  $ !Sn# $ !Sn#f|\&(.02|~ƯʯRv(\&$չB*5665CJjUmHnH 0JmHnH0J j0JU5B*CJOJQJB*CJOJQJ5B*CJ(OJQJ5B*CJ$OJQJ 5OJQJj5OJQJUmHnH0JmH 0J6mH 6B*mHnH mH5SSSSSSlTnTpTrTtTvTxTzT|T~TTTTTTTTTT$ ! ! $h !n#&P#$h(&P . A!"5#$%n+ 0&P . A!"#$%n+ 0&P . A!"#$%n+ 0&P . A!"#$%n 16 June, 2008 Ministry of Education PO Box 1666 Wellington Thank you for the opportunity to comment on the Schools Plus Discussion Paper. This submission has been prepared on behalf of the Paediatric Society of New Zealand. The society is a multidisciplinary association of Paediatricians and other health professionals working with and on behalf of New Zealand children and adolescents. We suggest that four NPdfhjlv("\"&))+2 2 2(5:;?BJCTDVFLMMNNNbPfP|PPQ\Q&R(R.R0R2R|R~RRļ5B*CJ(OJQJ5B*CJ$OJQJ 5OJQJj5OJQJUmHnH0JmH 0J6mH 6B*mHnH mH6B* 5B*KH$B*KH$nH 5CJB*56650JCJmHnH0JCJj0JCJUCJ4  0 2 4 6         \ & F1nn@&(&P . A!"5#$%n+ 0&P . A!"#$%n+ 0&P . A!"#$%n+ 0&P . A!"#$%n 16 June, 2008 Ministry of Education PO Box 1666 Wellington Thank you for the opportunity to comment on the Schools Plus Discussion Paper. This submission has been prepared on behalf of the Paediatric Society of New Zealand. The society is a multidisciplinary association of Paediatricians and other health professionals working with and on behalf of New Zealand children and adolescents. We suggest that four changes be made to the approach in the Schools Plus discussion paper: The importance of interventions in the preschool years, particularly for the most at risk children, needs to be more clearly acknowledged and addressed. Services available in the publiidualised and co-ordinated planning for the transition from school to the adult world be it tertiary education or direct entry to the workforce, at what ever the ability level of the student from the very able to the disabled. We suggest that there are very real resourcing issues, and that these need to be addressed for this to work. Interventions in the preschool years Much of the paper focuses on secondary school children, though mention is made of factors that apply to younger children, such as a focus on literacy and numeracy from primary school onwards. Programmes for pregnant women and parents of young children Many key factors that are going to impact on a young person s educational choices are actually set in train before the child even enters primary school, and indeed in many cases before entering Early Childhood Education. We consider that early intervention is a key factor in families and children at risk of a number of adverse outcomes, including poor academic achievement in later years. There is extensive evidence to support this view. David Olds and colleagues (2007) have conducted a very thorough review of programmes for parents of infants and toddlers. They have found that such programmes hold considerable promise  for improving children s life-course trajectories and for reducing health and developmental problems and associated costs to government and society. Their analysis shows that the most promising programmes are those delivered by professionals,  especially nurse home visiting programmes for pregnant women and parents of young children , and that these produced beneficial effects that could be reliably reproduced in different populations and settings. The Christchurch developmental study has shown that the greater the number of disadvantages that the child faces the worse the outcome in later life. For cost efficiency reasons, we contend that while endeavouring to ensure that all students receive a good education and appropriate training is very important, the most intensive efforts and priority attention need to be focused on the very early years of life. More focus is needed on how to empower families and whanau and communities so that children grow up with the wish, ability and opportunity to learn and gain useful qualifications. Early childhood education There is an extensive literature on the lasting effects of good Early Childhood Education, even though the area is very complex. The New Zealand Epidemiology Service has published on this topic, combining New Zealand data with a literature review (2007). Topics include  Participation in Early Childhood Education. The importance of these very early years is recognised in Ka Hikitia. Ka Hikitia is mentioned as an underpinning document for the Schools Plus discussion paper as it relates to Maori. The importance of good accessible preschool education should be explicitly articulated as applying to other groups of children too, and again all interventions should be evidence based. Improving access to early childhood education, and improving the quality of such education using the available evidence base should form part of the Schoosl Plus policy. Services for young people with challenging behaviour are inadequate and this needs to be addressed. It is recognised that it is best to address all behaviour problems at a young age, and that treatment becomes harder and less successful as the age of the affected young person increased. To quote the review by Church (2003)  The research reviewed in this report shows that the task of halting antisocial development and accelerating social development becomes increasingly more complex, more costly, and less likely to succeed the older the child becomes. A number of studies have shown that, prior to school entry it is possible to halt antisocial development and accelerate prosocial development in 75% to 80% of antisocial children. Between the ages of 5 and 7 years, the success rate of the most effective interventions drops to 65-70%, and between the ages of 8 and 12 years the success rate for the most effective interventions falls to 45% to 50%. During adolescence, the most effective interventions succeed in rehabilitating only a small fraction of the children who were engaging in antisocial behaviour at school entry. These figures also support a stance that evidence based approaches to behaviour and social problems are more cost effective when instituted early. Moreover, the review found that treatments in place in New Zealand in the 1970s did not appear to have succeeded in preventing children growing up with ongoing severe behaviour problems. Church summarises the literature reviewed as suggesting that  children with severe antisocial behaviour difficulties are likely to have four major types of special teaching needs. These are (a) the need to practise responding in prosocial (rather than antisocial) ways to the behaviour of other people, (b) the need to learn that other people can be trusted and that how other people react to one's behaviour is important and needs to be taken into account, (c) the need to learn and to practice age-appropriate social skills, especially those which are necessary for the development and maintenance of positive relationships with peers and with adults and (d) the need to catch up o)u)v)w)y)z)))))))))))))))!*LLSVVVrXXbb"fVf mmovvv"y~DNP|’\`vVʼ0JmH 0J6mH 6B*mHnH mH6B* 5B*KH$B*KH$nH 5CJB*566B*50JCJmHnH0JCJj0JCJUCJjUmHnH 0JmHnH j0JU0J:(&P . A!"5#$%n+ 0&P . A!"#$%n+ 0&P . A!"#$%n+ 0&P . A!"#$%n 16 June, 2008 Ministry of Education PO Box 1666 Wellington Thank you for the opportunity to comment on the Schools Plus Discussion Paper. This submission has been prepared on behalf of the Paediatric Society of New Zealand. The society is a multidisciplinary association of Paediatricians and other health professionals working with and on behalf of New Zealand children and adolescents. We suggest that four changes be made to the approach in the Schools Plus discussion paper. The importance of interventions in the preschool years, particularly for the most at risk children, needs to be more clearly acknowledged and addressed. Services available in the public sector for treating children and adolescents with challenging behaviour are currently inadequate and need to be enhanced. 3. Wherever possible, all interventions and or services should be evidence based and be evaluated. 4.There needs to be individualised and co-ordinated planning for the transition from school to the adult world be it tertiary education or direct entry to the workforce, at what ever the ability level of the student from the very able to the disabled. We suggest that there are very real resourcing issues, and that these need to be addressed for this to work. Interventions in the preschool years Much of the paper focuses on secondary school children, though mention is made of factors that apply to younger children, such as a focus on literacy and numeracy from primary school onwards. Programmes for pregnant women and parents of young children Many key factors that are going to impact on a young person s educational choices are actually set in train before the child even enters primary school, and indeed in many cases before entering Early Childhood Education. We consider that early intervention is a key factor in families and children at risk of a number of adverse outcomes, including poor academic achievement in later years. There is extensive evidence to support this view. David Olds and colleagues (2007) have conducted a very thorough review of programmes for parents of infants and toddlers. They have found that such programmes hold considerable promise  for improving children s life-course trajectories and for reducing health and developmental problems and associated costs to government and society. Their analysis shows that the most promising programmes are those delivered by professionals,  especially nurse home visiting programmes for pregnant women and parents of young children , and that these produced beneficial effects that could be reliably reproduced in different populations and settings. The Christchurch developmental study has shown that the greater the number of disadvantages that the child faces the worse the outcome in later life. For cost efficiency reasons, we contend that while endeavouring to ensure that all students receive a good education and appropriate training is very important, the most intensive efforts and priority attention need to be focused on the very early years of life. More focus is needed on how to empower families and whanau and communities so that children grow up with the wish, ability and opportunity to learn and gain useful qualifications. Early childhood education There is an extensive literature on the lasting effects of good Early Childhood Education, even though the area is very complex. The New Zealand Epidemiology Service has published on this topic, combining New Zealand data with a literature review (2007). Topics include  Participation in Early Childhood Education. The importance of these very early years is recognised in Ka Hikitia. Ka Hikitia is mentioned as an underpinning document for the Schools Plus discussion paper as it relates to Maori. The importance of good accessible preschool education should be explicitly articulated as applying to other groups of children too, and again all interventions should be evidence based. Improving access to early childhood education, and improving the quality of such education using the available evidence base should form part of the Schoosl Plus policy. Services for young people with challenging behaviour are inadequate and this needs to be addressed. It is recognised that it is best to address all behaviour problems at a young age, and that treatment becomes harder and less successful as the age of the affected young person increased. To quote the review by Church (2003)  The research reviewed in this report shows that the task of halting antisocial development and accelerating social development becomes increasingly more complex, more costly, and less likely to succeed the older the child becomes. A number of studies have shown that, prior to school entry it is possible to halt antisocial development and accelerate prosocial development in 75% to 80% of antisocial children. Between the ages of 5 and 7 years, the success rate of the most effective interventions drops to 65-70%, and between the ages of 8 and 12 years the success rate for the most effective interventions falls to 45% to 50%. During adolescence, the most effective interventions succeed in rehabilitating only a small fraction of the children who were engaging in antisocial behaviour at school entry. These figures also support a stance that evidence based approaches to behaviour and social problems are more cost effective when instituted early. Moreover, the review found that treatments in place in New Zealand in the 1970s did not appear to have succeeded in preventing children growing up with ongoing severe behaviour problems. Church summarises the literature reviewed as suggesting that  children with severe antisocial behaviour difficulties are likely to have four major types of special teaching needs. These are (a) the need to practise responding in prosocial (rather than antisocial) ways to the behaviour of other people, (b) the need to learn that other people can be trusted and that how other people react to one's behaviour is important and needs to be taken into account, (c) the need to learn and to practice age-appropriate social skills, especially those which are necessary for the development and maintenance of positive relationships with peers and with adults and (d) the need to catch up as quickly as possible with respect to missing academic skills, especially in reading, writing, and maths. While the research indicates an important role for the education system, there is also clearly need for other specialised services.  It seems extremely unlikely, on the basis of the research reviewed in this report, that antisocial development can be halted and prosocial development accelerated using just a school-based intervention on its own. This appears to be because children spend far less time in the classroom than they do outside the classroom and hence are exposed to fewer social learning opportunities in the classroom than they are exposed to in non-classroom settings. (Church 2003). Increased access to good quality evidence based behaviour and parenting programmes should be part of the articulated Schools Plus philosophy. Also, reference should be made to the Ministry of Education initiatives that are already starting to address this, for example by providing more opportunities for parents and caregivers to take part in the Incredible Years Parenting Programme which is well researched and robust. Summary of our position on the discussion paper As we understand the discussion paper, Schools Plus is about transforming secondary schooling and strengthening partnerships between schools, tertiary education organisations, employers, industry training organisations and non-government organisations. This aims to extend the learning opportunities available to all students, and to connect young people to their next steps beyond school. For this to work well for all students additional resources will need to be made available, for example to schools. Our view is that there is good evidence that any programme to improve school retention and improve the qualifications of young people should also address important factors in very early life. A thorough review of what is known about home visiting and parenting programmes, and a clear articulation of what is known to work around treating early antisocial behaviour, should inform such a policy. This submission includes some key references, and we would be happy to provide further information around the main points raised if this would be of assistance. Yours sincerely Dr Phillipa Clark Senior Lecturer Developmental Paediatrics University of Auckland Appendix 1 References: Church Report - The Definition, Diagnosis and Treatment of Children and Youth with Severe Behaviour Difficulties. New Zealand Ministry of Education. 2003.http://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/publications/special_education/15171 Craig E, Jackson C, Han DY, NZCYES Steering Committee. Monitoring the Health of New Zealand Children and Young People: Indicator Handbook. 2007. Auckland: Paediatric Society of New Zealand, New Zealand Child and Youth Epidemiology Service. Ka Hititea http://kahikitia.minedu.govt.nz/kahikitia/default.htm McCain MN, Mustard JF. Early Years Study: Final Report. Canadian institute for Advanced Research, Toronto, 1999. www.childsec.gov.on.ca/newsrel/reporten.pdf THE PAEDIATRIC SOCIETY OF NEW ZEALAND Secretariat Email:Denise Tringham P O Box 22 234 Wellington 6441 Tel: (04) 938 4827 Fax: : (04) 976 4827 psnz@paradise.net.nz PAGE  PAGE 1  Paediatric Society of New Zealand Submission on Schools Plus Page  NUMPAGES 1  Health of our children: Wealth of our nation QRRSSVVVVpXrXXZZb\d\^^^^^tavaddnH$7$8$dx dx7H$7$8$ & F17H$7$8$df"fVfLjNjm mmmvvvxx~~BD:<Z $*$d dxnnH$7$8$Z\ȏʏ̏ΏЏHvz|~z|^`n@& nH$7$8$@&nc sector for treating children and adolescents with challenging behaviour are currently inadequate and need to be enhanced. 3. Wherever possible, all interventions and or services should be evidence based and be evaluated. 4. There needs to be indivi"$&(,xzȖ.^$ $  $ !Sn# $ !Sn# $x$ $ n—ėfhjlnprtvx $h !n#h&P#$ !4$$\u+#dualised and co-ordinated planning for the transition from school to the adult world be it tertiary education or direct entry to the workforce, at what ever the ability level of the student from the very able to the disabled. We suggest that there are very real resourcing issues, and that these need to be addressed for this to work. Interventions in the preschool years Much of the paper focuses on secondary school children, though mention is made of factors that apply to younger children, such as a focus****** *!*LLLLLMM0M2M4M6MMMOOPQQ & F17H$7$8$7H$7$8$nH$7$8$ nH$7$8$@&RRRSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSNTPTdTfThTjTlTTddnnvppzz(~\~&  (֖JTVƪȪbf6B* 5B*KH$B*KH$nH 5CJB*56650JCJmHnH0JCJj0JCJUCJjUmHnH 0JmHnH0J j0JU 5OJQJ5B*CJOJQJB*CJOJQJ:(&P . A!"5#$%n+ 0&P . A!"#$%n+ 0&P . A!"#$%n+ 0&P . A!"#$%n 16 June, 2008 Ministry of Education PO Box 1666 Wellington Thank you for the opportunity to comment on the Schools Plus Discussion Paper. This submission has been prepared on behalf of the Paediatric Society of New Zealand. The society is a multidisciplinary association of Paediatricians and other health professionals working with and on behalf of New Zealand children and adolescents. We suggest that four changes be made to the approach in the Schools Plus discussion paper: The importance of interventions in the preschool years, particularly for the most at risk children, needs to be more clearly acknowledged and addressed. Services available in the public sector for treating children and adolescents with challenging behaviour are currently inadequate and need to be enhanced. 3. Wherever possible, all interventions and or services should be evidence based and be evaluated. 4. There needs to be individualised and co-ordinated planning for the transition from school to the adult world be it tertiary education or direct entry to the workforce, at what ever the ability level of the student from the very able to the disabled. We suggest that there are very real resourcing issues, and that these need to be addressed for this to work. Interventions in the preschool years Much of the paper focuses on secondary school children, though mention is made of factors that apply to younger children, such as a focus on literacy and numeracy from primary school onwards. Programmes for pregnant women and parents of young children Many key factors that are going to impact on a young person s educational choices are actually set in train before the child even enters primary school, and indeed in many cases before entering Early Childhood Education. We consider that early intervention is a key factor in families and children at risk of a number of adverse outcomes, including poor academic achievement in later years. There is extensive evidence to support this view. David Olds and colleagues (2007) have conducted a very thorough review of programmes for parents of infants and toddlers. They have found that such programmes hold considerable promise  for improving children s life-course trajectories and for reducing health and developmental problems and associated costs to government and society. Their analysis shows that the most promising programmes are those delivered by professionals,  especially nurse home visiting programmes for pregnant women and parents of young children , and that these produced beneficial effects that could be reliably reproduced in different populations and settings. The Christchurch developmental study has shown that the greater the number of disadvantages that the child faces the worse the outcome in later life. For cost efficiency reasons, we contend that while endeavouring to ensure that all students receive a good education and appropriate training is very important, the most intensive efforts and priority attention need to be focused on the very early years of life. More focus is needed on how to empower families and whanau and communities so that children grow up with the wish, ability and opportunity to learn and gain useful qualifications. Early childhood education There is an extensive literature on the lasting effects of good Early Childhood Education, even though the area is very complex. The New Zealand Epidemiology Service has published on this topic, combining Newas quickly as possible with respect to missing academic skills, especially in reading, writing, and maths. While the research indicates an important role for the education system, there is also clearly need for other specialised services.  It seems extremely unlikely, on the basis of the research reviewed in this report, that antisocial development can be halted and prosocial development accelerated using just a school-based intervention on its own. This appears to be because children spend far less time Zealand data with a literature review (2007). Topics include  Participation in Early Childhood Education. The importance of these very early years is recognised in Ka Hikitia. Ka Hikitia is mentioned as an underpinning document for the Schools Plus discussion paper as it relates to Maori. The importance of good accessible preschool education should be explicitly articulated as applying to other groups of children too, and again all interventions should be evidence based. Improving access to early childhood education, and improving the quality of such education using the available evidence base should form part of the Schoosl Plus policy. Services for young people with challenging behaviour are inadequate and this needs to be addressed. It is recognised that it is best to address all behaviour problems at a young age, and that treatment becomes harder and less successful as the age of the affected young person increased. To quote the review by Church (2003)  The research reviewed in this report shows that the task of halting antisocial development and accelerating social development becomes increasingly more complex, more costly, and less likely to succeed the older the child becomes. A number of studies have shown that, prior to school entry it is possible to halt antisocial development and accelerate prosocial development in 75% to 80% of antisocial children. Between the ages of 5 and 7 years, the success rate of the most effective interventions drops to 65-70%, and between the ages of 8 and 12 years the success rate for the most effective interventions falls to 45% to 50%. During adolescence, the most effective interventions succeed in rehabilitating only a small fraction of the children who were engaging in antisocial behaviour at school entry. These figures also support a stance that evidence based approaches to behaviour and social problems are more cost effective when instituted early. Moreover, the review found that treatments in place in New Zealand in the 1970s did not appear to have succeeded in preventing children growing up with ongoing severe behaviour problems. Church summarises the literature reviewed as suggesting that  children with severe antisocial behaviour difficulties are likely to have four major types of special teaching needs. These are (a) the need to practise responding in prosocial (rather than antisocial) ways to the behaviour of other people, (b) the need to learn that other people can be trusted and that how other people react to one's behaviour is important and needs to be taken into account, (c) the need to learn and to practice age-appropriate social skills, especially those which are necessary for the development and maintenance of positive relationships with peers and with adults and (d) the need to catch up as quickly as possible with respect to missing academic skills, especially in reading, writing, and maths. While the research indicates an important role for the education system, there is also clearly need for other specialised services.  It seems extremely unlikely, on the basis of the research reviewed in this report, that antisocial development can be halted and prosocial development accelerated using just a school-based intervention on its own. This appears to be because children spend far less time in the classroom than they do outside the classroom and hence are exposed to fewer social learning opportunities in the classroom than they are exposed to in non-classroom settings. (Church 2003). Increased access to good quality evidence based behaviour and parenting programmes should be part of the articulated Schools Plus philosophy. Also, reference should be made to the Ministry of Education initiatives that are already starting to address this, for example by providing more opportunities for parents and caregivers to take part in the Incredible Years Parenting Programme which is well researched and robust. Summary of our position on the discussion paper As we understand the discussion paper, Schools Plus is about transforming secondary schooling and strengthening partnerships between schools, tertiary education organisations, employers, industry training organisations and non-government organisations. This aims to extend the learning opportunities available to all students, and to connect young people to their next steps beyond school. For this to work well for all students additional resources will need to be made available, for example to schools. Our view is that there is good evidence that any programme to improve school retention and improve the qualifications of young people should also address important factors in very early life. A thorough review of what is known about home visiting and parenting programmes, and a clear articulation of what is known to work around treating early antisocial behaviour, should inform such a policy. This submission includes some key references, and we would be happy to provide further information around the main points raised if this would be of assistance. Yours sincerely Dr Phillipa Clark Senior Lecturer Developmental Paediatrics University of Auckland Appendix 1 References: Church Report - The Definition, Diagnosis and Treatment of Children and Youth with Severe Behaviour Difficulties. New Zealand Ministry of Education. 2003.http://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/publications/special_education/15171 Craig E, Jackson C, Han DY, NZCYES Steering Committee. Monitoring the Health of New Zealand Children and Young People: Indicator Handbook. 2007. Auckland: Paediatric Society of New Zealand, New Zealand Child and Youth Epidemiology Service. Ka Hititea http://kahikitia.minedu.govt.nz/kahikitia/default.htm McCain MN, Mustard JF. Early Years Study: Final Report. Canadian institute for Advanced Research, Toronto, 1999. www.childsec.gov.on.ca/newsrel/reporten.pdf THE PAEDIATRIC SOCIETY OF NEW ZEALAND Secretariat Email:Denise Tringham P O Box 22 234 Wellington 6441 Tel: (04) 938 4827 Fax: : (04) 976 4827 psnz@paradise.net.nz PAGE  PAGE 5  Paediatric Society of New Zealand Submission on Schools Plus Page 2  Health of our children: Wealth of our nation jjkknnnntpvpprrfthtpyrytyvyxyzy|y||"~(~\~ndx dx\\~RT$&  ؖږHJ@B`b $*$d dxnΧЧҧԧ֧N|df(*,.n@&n@&n on literacy and numeracy from primary school onwards. Programmes for pregnant women and parents of young children Many key factors that are going to impact on a young person s educational choices are actually set in train before the child even enters .2~ή 4d4$$\u+#$ $  $ !Sn# $ !Sn# $x$ $ ȯʯRTVXZ\^`bdfhjlnpr $h !n#h&P#$ !primary school, and indeed in many cases before entering Early Childhood Education. We consider that early intervention is a key factor in families and children at risk of a number of adverse outcomes, including poor academic achievement in later years. There is extensive evidence to support this view. David Olds and colleagues (2007) have conducted a very thorough review of programmes for parents of infants and toddlers. They have found that such programmes hold considerable promise  for improving chiTTTTTTTTdddddee0e2e4e6eeegghhiij & F1nn@&bbbbb c cccccccccccccHdxxv(\&$ҪԪܪު2BԹλ8lxz0JmH 0J6mH 6B*mHnH mH6B* 5B*KH$B*KH$nH B*56650JCJmHnH0JCJj0JCJUCJjUmHnH 0JmHnH0J j0JU<(&P . A!"5#$%n+ 0&P . A!"#$%n+ 0&P . A!"#$%n+ 0&P . A!"#$%n 16 June, 2008 Ministry of Education PO Box 1666 Wellington Thank you for the opportunity to comment on the Schools Plus Discussion Paper. This submission has been prepared on behalf of the Paediatric Society of New Zealand. The society is a multidisciplinary association of Paediatricians and other health professionals working with and on behalf of New Zealand children and adolescents. We suggest that four changes be made to the approach in the Schools Plus discussion paper: The importance of interventions in the preschool years, particularly for the most at risk children, needs to be more clearly acknowledged and addressed. Services available in the public sector for treating children and adolescents with challenging behaviour are currently inadequate and need to be enhanced. 3. Wherever possible, all interventions and or services should be evidence based and be evaluated. 4. There needs to be individualised and co-ordinated planning for the transition from school to the adult world be it tertiary education or direct entry to the workforce, at what ever the ability level of the student from the very able to the disabled. We suggest that there are very real resourcing issues, and that these need to be addressed for this to work. Interventions in the preschool years Much of the paper focuses on secondary school children, though mention is made of factors that apply to younger children, such as a focus on literacy and numeracy from primary school onwards. Programmes for pregnant women and parents of young children Many key factors that are going to impact on a young person s educational choices are actually set in train before the child even enters primary school, and indeed in many cases before entering Early Childhood Education. We consider that early intervention is a key factor in families and children at risk of a number of adverse outcomes, including poor academic achievement in later years. There is extensive evidence to support this view. David Olds and colleagues (2007) have conducted a very thorough review of programmes for parents of infants and toddlers. They have found that such programmes hold considerable promise  for improving children s life-course trajectories and for reducing health and developmental problems and associated costs to government and society. Their analysis shows that the most promising programmes are those delivered by professionals,  especially nurse home visiting programmes for pregnant women and parents of young children , and that these produced beneficial effects that could be reliably reproduced in different populations and settings. The Christchurch developmental study has shown that the greater the number of disadvantages that the child faces the worse the outcome in later life. For cost efficiency reasons, we contend that while endeavouring to ensure that all students receive a good education and appropriate training is very important, the most intensive efforts and priority attention need to be focused on the very early years of life. More focus is needed on how to empower families and whanau and communities so that children grow up with the wish, ability and opportunity to learn and gain useful qualifications. Early childhood education There is an extensive literature on the lasting effects of good Early Childhood Education, even though the area is very complex. The New Zealand Epidemiology Service has published on this topic, combining New Zealand data with a literature review (2007). Topics include  Participation in Early Childhood Education. The importance of these very early years is recognised in Ka Hikitia. Ka Hikitia is mentioned as an underpinning document for the Schools Plus di scussion paper as it relates to Maori. The importance of good accessible preschool education should be explicitly articulated as applying to other groups of children too, and again all interventions should be evidence based. Improving access to early childhood education, and improving the quality of such education using the available evidence base should form part of the Schoosl Plus policy. Services for young people with challenging behaviour are inadequate and this needs to be addressed. It is recognised that it is best to address all behaviour problems at a young age, and that treatment becomes harder and less successful as the age of the affected young person increased. To quote the review by Church (2003)  The research reviewed in this report in the classroom than they do outside the classroom and hence are exposed to fewer social learning opportunities in the classroom than they are exposed to in non-classroom settings. (Church 2003). Increased access to good quality evidence based behaviour and parenting programmes should be part of the articulated Schools Plus philosophy. Also, reference should be made to the Ministry of Education initiatives that are already starting to address this, for example by providing more opportunities for parents and caregivers to take part in the Incredible Years Parenting Programme which is well researched and robust. Summary of our position on the discussion paper As we understand the discussion paper, Schools Plus is about transforming secondary schooling and strengthening partnerships between schools, tertiary education organisations, employers, industry training organisations and non-government organisations. This aims to extend the learning opportunities available to all students, and to connect young people to their next steps beyond school. For this to work well for all students additional resources will need to be made available, for example to schools. Our view is that there is good evidence that any programme to improve school retention and improve the qualifications of young people should also address important factors in very early life. A thorough review of what is known about home visiting and parenting programmes, and a clear articulation of what is known to work around treating early antisxz|~ҨԨ֨024 nH$7$8$@&$ ! !ocial behaviour, should inform such a policy. This submission includes some key references, and we would be happy to provide further information around the main points raised if this would be of assistance. Yours sincerely Dr Phillipa Clark Senior Lecturer Developmental Paediatrics University of Auckland Appendix 1 References: Church Report - The Definition, Diagnosis and Treatment of Children and Youth with Severe Behaviour Difficulties. New Zealand Ministry of Education. 2003.http://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/publications/special_education/15171 Craig E, Jackson C, Han DY, NZCYES Steering Committee. Monitoring the Health of New Zealand Children and Young People: Indicator Handbook. 2007. Auckland: Paediatric Society of New Zealand, New Zealand Child and Youth Epidemiology Service. Ka Hititea http://kahikitia.minedu.govt.nz/kahikitia/default.htm McCain MN, Mustard JF. Early Years Study: Final Report. Canadian institute for Advanced Research, Toronto, 1999. www.childsec.gov.on.ca/newsrel/reporten.pdf THE PAEDIATRIC SOCIETY OF NEW ZEALAND Secretariat Email:Denise Tringham P O Box 22 234 Wellington 6441 Tel: (04) 938 4827 Fax: : (04) 976 4827 psnz@paradise.net.nz PAGE  PAGE 1  Paediatric Society of New Zealand Submission on Schools Plus Page  NUMPAGES 1  Health of our children: Wealth of our nation 46ةکԫ֫­ʯ̯vxh 7\H$7$8$ & F17H$7$8$7H$7$8$nH$7$8$ nH$7$8$@&hjԺֺغںܺz|"(\RT$& $*$d nnH$7$8$dx dx7H$7$8$ (JTVbf|\&(.02|~{jUmHnH 0JmHnH0J j0JU5B*CJOJQJB*CJOJQJ5B*CJ(OJQJ5B*CJ$OJQJ 5OJQJj5OJQJUmHnH0JmH 0J6mH 6B*mHnH mH6B* 5B*KH$B*KH$nH 5B*5CJ/HJ@B`bN|nH$7$8$nldren s life-course trajectories and for reducing health and developmental problems and associated costs to government and society. Their analysis shows that the most promising programmes are those delivered by professionals,  especially nurse home visiting programmes for pregnant women and parents of young children , and that these produced beneficial effects that could be reliably reproduced in different populations and settings. The Christchurch developmental study has shown that the greater thdf(*,.2~ $ !Sn# $ !Sn# $x$ $ nn@& nH$7$8$@& 4dh&P#$ !4$$\u+#$ $  $ !Sn# $ !Sn#lnprtvxz|~$ ! ! $h !n#e number of disadvantages that the child faces the worse the outcome in later life. For cost efficiency reasons, we contend that while endeavouring to ensure that all students receive a good education and appropriate training is very important, the most intensive efforts and priority attention need to be focused on the very early years of life. More focus is needed on how to empower families and whanau and communities so that children grow up with the wish, ability and opportunity to learn and gain useful qualifications. Early childhood education There is an extensive literature on the lasting effects of good Early Childhood Education, even though the area is very complex. The New Zealand Epidemiology Service has published on this topic, combining Newchanges be made to the approach in the Schools Plus discussion paper: The importance of interventions in the preschool years, particularly for the most at risk children, needs to be more clearly acknowledged and addressed. Services available in the public sector for treating children and adolescents with challenging behaviour are currently inadequate and need to be enhanced. 3. Wherever possible, all interventions and or services should be evidence based and be evaluated. 4. There needs to be individualised and co-ordinated planning for the transition from school to the adult world be it tertiary education or direct entry to the workforce, at what ever the ability level of the student from the very able to the disabled. We suggest that there are very real resourcing issues, and that these need to be addressed for this to work. Interventions in the preschool years Much of the paper focuses on secondary school children, though mention is made of factors that apply to younger children, such as a focus on literacy and numeracy from primary school onwards. Programmes for pregnant women and parents of young children Many key factors that are going to impact on a young person s educational choices are actually set in train before the child even enters primary school, and indeed in many cases before entering Early Childhood Education. We consider that early intervention is a key factor in families and children at risk of a number of adverse outcomes, including poor academic achievement in later years. There is extensive evidence to support this view. David Olds and colleagues (2007) have conducted a very thorough review of programmes for parents of infants and toddlers. They have found that such programmes hold considerable promise  for improving children s life-course trajectories and for reducing health and developmental problems and associated costs to government and society. Their analysis shows that the most promising programmes are those delivered by professionals,  especially nurse home visiting programmes for pregnant women and parents of young children , and that these produced beneficial effects that could be reliably reproduced in different populations and settings. The Christchurch developmental study has shown that the greater the number of disadvantages that the child faces the worse the outcome in later life. For cost efficiency reasons, we contend that while endeavouring to ensure that all students receive a good education and appropriate training is very important, the most intensive efforts and priority attention need to be focused on the very early years of life. More focus is needed on how to empower families and whanau and communities so that children grow up with the wish, ability and opportunity to learn and gain useful qualifications. Early childhood education There is an extensive literature on the lasting effects of good Early Childhood Education, even though the area is very complex. The New Zealand Epidemiology Service has published on this topic, combining New Zealand data with a literature review (2007). Topics include  Participation in Early Childhood Education. The importance of these very early years is recognised in Ka Hikitia. Ka Hikitia is mentioned as an underpinning document for the Schools Plus discussion paper as it relates to Maori. The importance of good accessible preschool education should be explicitly articulated as applying to other groups of children too, and again all interventions should be evidence based. Improving access to early childhood education, and improving the quality of such education using the available evidence base should form part of the Schoosl Plus policy. Services for young people with challenging behaviour are inadequate and this needs to be addressed. It is recognised that it is best to address all behaviour problems at a young age, and that treatment becomes harder and less successful as the age of the affected young person increased. To quote the review by Church (2003)  The research reviewed in this report shows that the task of halting antisocial development and accelerating social development becomes increasingly more complex, more costly, and less likely to succeed the older the child becomes. A number of studies have shown that, prior to school entry it is possible to halt antisocial development and accelerate prosocial development in 75% to 80% of antisocial children. Between the ages of 5 and 7 years, the success rate of the most effective interventions drops to 65-70%, and between the ages of 8 and 12 years the success rate for the most effective interventions falls to 45% to 50%. During adolescence, the most effective interventions succeed in rehabilitating only a small fraction of the children who were engaging in antisocial behaviour at school entry. These figures also support a stance that evidence based approaches to behaviour and social problems are more cost effective when instituted early. Moreover, the review found that treatments in place in New Zealand in the 1970s did not appear to have succeeded in preventing children growing up with ongoing severe behaviour problems. Church summarises the literature reviewed as suggesting that  children with severe antisocial behaviour difficulties are likely to have four major types of special teaching needs. These are (a) the need to practise responding in prosocial (rather than antisocial) ways to the behaviour of other people, (b) the need to learn that other people can be trusted and that how other people react to one's behaviour is important and needs to be taken into account, (c) the need to learn and to practice age-appropriate social skills, especially those which are necessary for the development and maintenance of positive relationships with peers and with adults and (d) the need to catch up as quickly as possible with respect to missing academic skills, especially in reading, writing, and maths. While the research indicates an important role for the education system, there is also clearly need for other specialised services.  It seems extremely unlikely, on the basis of the research reviewed in this report, that antisocial development can be halted and prosocial development accelerated using just a school-based intervention on its own. This appears to be because children spend far less time in the classroom than they do outside the classroom and hence are exposed to fewer social learning opportunities in the classroom than they are exposed to in non-classroom settings. (Church 2003). Increased access to good quality evidence based behaviour and parenting programmes should be part of the articulated Schools Plus philosophy. Also, reference should be made to the Ministry of Education initiatives that are already starting to address this, for example by providing more opportunities for parents and caregivers to take part in the Incredible Years Parenting Programme which is well researched and robust. Summary of our position on the discussion paper As we understand the discussion paper, Schools Plus is about transforming secondary schooling and strengthening partnerships between schools, tertiary education organisations, employers, industry training organisations and non-government organisations. This aims to extend the learning opportunities available to all students, and to connect young people to their next steps beyond school. For this to work well for all students additional resources will need to be made available, for example to schools. Our view is that there is good evidence that any programme to improve school retention and improve the qualifications of young people should also address important factors in very early life. A thorough review of what is known about home visiting and parenting programmes, and a clear articulation of what is known to work around treating early antisocial behaviour, should inform such a policy. This submission includes some key references, and we would be happy to provide further information around the main points raised if this would be of assistance. Yours sincerely Dr Phillipa Clark Senior Lecturer Developmental Paediatrics University of Auckland Appendix 1 References: Church Report - The Definition, Diagnosis and Treatment of Children and Youth with Severe Behaviour Difficulties. New Zealand Ministry of Education. 2003.http://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/publications/special_education/15171 Craig E, Jackson C, Han DY, NZCYES Steering Committee. Monitoring the Health of New Zealand Children and Young People: Indicator Handbook. 2007. Auckland: Paediatric Society of New Zealand, New Zealand Child and Youth Epidemiology Service. Ka Hititea http://kahikitia.minedu.govt.nz/kahikitia/default.htm McCain MN, Mustard JF. Early Years Study: Final Report. Canadian institute for Advanced Research, Toronto, 1999. www.childsec.gov.on.ca/newsrel/reporten.pdf THE PAEDIATRIC SOCIETY OF NEW ZEALAND Secretariat Email:Denise Tringham P O Box 22 234 Wellington 6441 Tel: (04) 938 4827 Fax: : (04) 976 4827 psnz@paradise.net.nz PAGE  PAGE 1  Paediatric Society of New Zealand Submission on Schools Plus Page 2  Health of our children: Wealth of our nation tvfhprtvxz|ndx dx\ & F1"(\RT$&P $*$d dxnR\^jn" d . 0 6 8 :                      Z  {xCJjUmHnH 0JmHnH0J j0JU5B*CJOJQJB*CJOJQJ5B*CJ(OJQJ5B*CJ$OJQJ 5OJQJj5OJQJUmHnH0JmH 0J6mH 6B*mHnH mH6B* 5B*KH$B*KH$nH 5B*5CJ/PRHJhjVn@&n@&nln0 2 4 6 :            < $  $ !Sn# $ !Sn# $x$ $ nn@&< l           Z \ ^ ` b d  $h !n#h&P#$ !4$$\u+# $ !Sn#$  Zealand data with a literature review (2007). Topics include  Participation in Early Childhood Education. The importance of these very early years is recognised in Ka Hikitia. Ka Hikitia is mentioned as an underpinning document for the Schools Plus discussion paper as it relates to Maori. The importance of good accessible preschool education should be explicitly articulated as applying to other groups of children too, and again all interventions should be evidence based. Improving access to early chrаҰ԰ְذڰܰް0246nn@&$ !νнҽ  DtHvx.xzB*56650JCJmHnH0JCJj0JCJUCJjUmHnH 0JmHnH0J j0JU5B*CJOJQJB*CJOJQJ5B*CJ(OJQJ5B*CJ$OJQJ 5OJQJj5OJQJUmHnH5(&P . A!"5#$%n+ 0&P . A!"#$%n+ 0&P . A!"#$%n 16 June, 2008 Ministry of Education PO Box 1666 Wellington Thank you for the opportunity to comment on the Schools Plus Discussion Paper. This submission has been prepared on behalf of the Paediatric Society of New Zealand. The society is a multidisciplinary association of Paediatricians and other health professionals working with and on behalf of New Zealand children and adolescents. We suggest that four changes be made to the approach in the Schools Plus discussion paper: The importance of interventions in the preschool years, particularly for the most at risk children, needs to be more clearly acknowledged and addressed. Services available in the public sector for treating children and adolescents with challenging behaviour are currently inadequate and need to be enhanced. 3. Wherever possible, all interventions and or services should be evidence based and be evaluated. 4. There needs to be individualised and co-ordinated planning for the transition from school to the adult world be it tertiary education or direct entry to the workforce, at what ever the ability level of the student from the very able to the disabled. We suggest that there are very real resourcing issues, and that these need to be addressed for this to work. Interventions in the preschool years Much of the paper focuses on secondary school children, though mention is made of factors that apply to younger children, such as a focus on literacy and numeracy from primary school onwards. Programmes for pregnant women and parents of young children Many key factors that are going to impact on a young person s educational choices are actually set in train before the child even enters primary school, and indeed in many cases before entering Early Childhood Education. We consider that early intervention is a key factor in families and children at risk of a number of adverse outcomes, including poor academic achievement in later years. There is extensive evidence to support this view. David Olds and colleagues (2007) have conducted a very thorough review of programmes for parents of infants and toddlers. They have found that such programmes hold considerable promise  for improving children s life-course trajectories and for reducing health and developmental problems and associated costs to government and society. Their analysis shows that the most promising programmes are those delivered by professionals,  especially nurse home visiting programmes for pregnant women and parents of young children , and that these produced beneficial effects that could be reliably reproduced in different populations and settings. The Christchurch developmental study has shown that the greater the number of disadvantages that the child faces the worse the outcome in later life. For cost efficiency reasons, we contend that while endeavouring to ensure that all students receive a good education and appropriate training is very important, the most intensive efforts and priority attention need to be focused on the very early years of life. More focus is needed on how to empower families and whanau and communities so that children grow up with the wish, ability and opportunity to learn and gain useful qualifications. Early childhood education There is an extensive literature on the lasting effects of good Early Childhood Education, even though the area is very complex. The New Zealand Epidemiology Service has published on this topic, combining New Zealand data with a liildhood education, and improving the quality of such education using the available evidence base should form part of the Schoosl Plus policy. Services for young people with challenging behaviour are inadequate and this needs to be addressed. It is recognised that it is best to address all behaviour problems at a young age, and that treatment becomes harder and less successful as the age of the affected young person increased. To quote the review by Church (2003)  The research reviewed in this report shows that the task of halting antisocial development and accelerating social development becomes increasingly more complex, more costly, and less likely to succeed the older the child becomes. A number of studies have shown that, prior to school entry it is possible to halt antisocial development and accelerate prosocial development in 75% to 80% of antisocial children. Between the ages of 5 and 7 years, the success rate of the most effective interventions drops to 65-70%, and between the ages of 8 and 12 years the success rate for the most effective interventions falls to 45% to 50%. During adolescence, the most effective interventions succeed in rehabilitating only a small fraction of the children who were engaging in antisocial behaviour at school entry. These figures also support a stance that evidence based approaches to behaviour and social problems are more cost effective when instituted early. Moreover, the review found that treatments in place in New Zealand in the 1970s did not appear to have succeeded in preventing children growing up with ongoing severe behaviour problems. Church summarises the literature reviewed as suggesting that  children with severe antisocial behaviour difficulties are likely to have four major types of special teaching needs. These are (a) the need to practise responding in prosocial (rather than antisocial) ways to the behaviour of other people, (b) the need to learn that other people can be trusted and that how other people react to one's behaviour is important and ne shows that the task of halting antisocial development and accelerating social development becomes increasingly more complex, more costly, and less likely to succeed the older the child becomes. A number of studies have shown that, prior to school entry it is possible to halt antisocial development and accelerate prosocial development in 75% to 80% of antisocial children. Between the ages of 5 and 7 years, the success rate of the most effective interventions drops to 65-70%, and between the ages of 8 and 12 years the success rate for the most effective interventions falls to 45% to 50%. During adolescence, the most effective interventions succeed in rehabilitating only a small fraction of the children who were engaging in antisocial behaviour at school entry. These figures also support a stance that evidence based approaches to behaviour and social problems are more cost effective when instituted early. Moreover, the review found that treatments in place in New Zealand in the 1970s did not appear to have succeeded in preventing children growing up with ongoing severe behaviour problems. Church summarises the literature reviewed as suggesting that  children with severe antisocial behaviour difficulties are likely to have four major types of special teaching needs. These are (a) the need to practise responding in prosocial (rather than antisocial) ways to the behaviour of other people, (b) the need to learn that other people can be trusted and that how other people react to one's behaviour is important and needs to be taken into account, (c) the need to learn and to practice age-appropriate social skills, especially those which are necessary for the development and maintenance of positive relationships with peers and with adults and (d) the need to catch up as quickly as possible with respect to missing academic skills, especially in reading, writing, and maths. Increased access to good quality evidence based behaviour and parenting programmes should be part of the articulated Schools Plus philosophy. Also, reference should be made to the Ministry of Education initiatives that are already starting to address this, for example by providing more opportunities for parents and caregivers to take part in the Incredible Years Parenting Programme which is well researched and robust. Summary of our position on the discussion paper As we understand the discussion paper, Schools Plus is about transforming secondary schooling and strengthening partnerships between schools, tertiary education organisations, employers, industry training organisations and non-government organisations. This aims to extend the learning opportunities available to all students, and to connect young people to their next steps beyond school. For this to work well for all students additional resources will need to be made available, for example to schools. Our view is that there is good evidence that any programme to improve school retention and improve the qualifications of young people should also address important factors in very early life. A thorough review of what is known about home visiting and parenting programmes, and a clear articulation of what is known to work around treating early antisocial behaviour, should inform such a policy. This submission includes some key references, and we would be happy to provide further information around the main points raised if this would be of assistance. Yours sincerely Dr Phillipa Clark Senior Lecturer Developmental Paediatrics University of Auckland Appendix 1 References: Church Report - The Definition, Diagnosis and Treatment of Children and Youth with Severe Behaviour Difficulties. New Zealand Ministry of Education. 2003.http://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/publications/special_education/15171 Craig E, Jackson C, Han d f h j l n p r t v x z          n@&$ ! !DY, NZCYES Steering Committee. Monitoring the Health of New Zealand Children and Young People: Indicator Handbook. 2007. Auckland: Paediatric Society of New Zealand, New Zealand Child and Youth Epidemiology Service. Ka Hititea http://kahikitia.minedu.govt.nz/kahikitia/default.htm McCain MN, Mustard JF. Early Years Study: Final Report. Canadian institute for Advanced Research, Toronto, 1999. www.childsec.gov.on.ca/newsrel/reporten.pdf THE PAEDIATRIC SOCIETY OF NEW ZEALAND Secretariat Email:Denise Tringham P O Box 22 234 Wellington 6441 Tel: (04) 938 4827 Fax: : (04) 976 4827 psnz@paradise.net.nz PAGE  PAGE 5  Paediatric Society of New Zealand Submission on Schools Plus Page  PAGE 3  Health of our children: Wealth of our nation &&v((22(6\6&==?FHH$INNNNNN4RRSU\\>]]^^___4`h``tavaaaaaaaabbbbbb0J j0JU5B*CJOJQJB*CJOJQJ5B*CJ(OJQJ5B*CJ$OJQJ 5OJQJj5OJQJUmHnH0JmH 0J6mH 6B*mHnH mH6B* 5B*KH$B*KH$nH B*566560246  !!""##&&&&t(v((**f,h,\ & F1nn@&h,p1r1t1v1x1z1|144"6(6\6R:T:$=&===FFHHNNNNndx dxNNNN4R6RRRVVYYZZZZ[[ ["[$[H[[[[[[[[ndx[[\\]]__8`:`vaxaza|a~aaaaaaaaa $ !Sn# $ !Sn# $x$ $ nn@&n@&eds to be taken into account, (c) the need to learn and to practice age-appropriate social skills, especially those which are necessary for the development and maintenance of positive relationships with peers and with adults and (d) the need to catch up as quickly as possible with respect to missing academic skills, especially in reading, writing, and maths. Increased access to good quality evidence based behaviour and parenting programmes should be part of the articulated Schools Plus philosophy. Aaab b>b^bbbbbbbbbbch&P#$ !4$$\u+#$ $  $ !Sn# $ !Sn#terature review (2007). Topics include  Participation in Early Childhood Education. The importance of these very early years is recognised in Ka Hikitia. Ka Hikitia is mentioned as an underpinning document for the Schools Plus discussion paper as it recccccccccccccccccccccc8d:dd@d$ ! ! $h !n#lates to Maori. The importance of good accessible preschool education should be explicitly articulated as applying to other groups of children too, and again all interventions should be evidence based. Improving access to early childhood education, and improving the quality of such education using the available evidence base should form part of the Schoosl Plus policy. Services for young people with challenging behaviour are inadequate and this needs to be addressed. It is recognised that it is bes(&P . A!"5#$%n+ 0&P . A!"#$%n+ 0&P . A!"#$%n 16 June, 2008 Ministry of Education PO Box 1666 Wellington Thank you for the opportunity to comment on the Schools Plus Discussion Paper. This submission has been prepared on behalf of the Paediatric Society of New Zealand. The society is a multidisciplinary association of Paediatricians and other health professionals working with and on behalf of New Zealand children and adolescents. We suggest that four changes be made to the approach in the Schools Plus discussion paper: The importance of interventions in the preschool years, particularly for the most at risk children, needs to be more clearly acknowledged and addressed. Services available in the public sector for treating children and adolescents with challenging behaviour are currently inadequate and need to be enhanced. 3. Wherever possible, all interventions and or services should be evidence based and be evaluated. 4. There needs to be individualised and co-ordinated planning for the transition from school to the adult world be it tertiary education or direct entry to the workforce, at what ever the ability level of the student from the very able to the disabled. We suggest that there are very real resourcing issues, and that these need to be addressed for this to work. Interventions in the preschool years Much of the paper focuses on secondary school children, though mention is made of factors that apply to younger children, such as a focus on literacy and numeracy from primary school onwards. Programmes for pregnant women and parents of young children Many key factors that are going to impact on a young person s educational choices are actually set in train before the child even enters primary school, and indeed in many cases before entering Early Childhood Education. We consider that early intervention is a key factor in families and children at risk of a number of adverse outcomes, including poor academic achievement in later years. There is extensive evidence to support this view. David Olds and colleagues (2007) have conducted a very thorough review of programmes for parents of infants and toddlers. They have found that such programmes hold considerable promise  for improving children s life-course trajectories and for reducing health and developmental problems and associated costs to government and society. Their analysis shows that the most promising programmes are those delivered by professionals,  especially nurse home visiting programmes for pregnant women and parents of young children , and that these produced beneficial effects that could be reliably reproduced in different populations and settings. The Christchurch developmental study has shown that the greater the number of disadvantages that the child faces the worse the outcome in later life. For cost efficiency reasons, we contend that while endeavouring to ensure that all students receive a good education and appropriate training is very important, the most intensive efforts and priority attention need to be focused on the very early years of life. More focus is needed on how to empower families and whanau and communities so that children grow up with the wish, ability and opportunity to learn and gain useful qualifications. Early childhood education There is an extensive literature on the lasting effects of good Early Childhood Education, even though the area is very complex. The New Zealand Epidemiology Service has published on this topic, combining New Zealand data with a lit to address all behaviour problems at a young age, and that treatment becomes harder and less successful as the age of the affected young person increased. To quote the review by Church (2003)  The research reviewed in this report shows that the task of halting antisocial development and accelerating social development becomes increasingly more complex, more costly, and less likely to succeed the older the child becomes. A number of studies have shown that, prior to school entry it is possible to halt antisocial development and accelerate prosocial development in 75% to 80% of antisocial children. Between the ages of 5 and 7 years, the success rate of the most effective interventions drops to 65-70%, and between the ages of 8 and 12 years the success rate for the most effective interventions falls to 45% to 50%. During adolescence, the most effective interventions succeed in rehabilitating only a small fraction of the children who were engaging in antisocial behaviour at school entry. These figures also support a stance that evidence based approaches to behaviour and social problems are more cost effective when instituted early. Moreover, the review found that treatments in place in New Zealand in the 1970s did not appear to have succeeded in preventing children growing up with ongoing severe behaviour problems. Church summarises the literature reviewed as suggesting that  children with severe antisocial behaviour difficulties are likely to have four major types of special teaching needs. These are (a) the need to practise responding in prosocial (rather than antisocial) ways to the behaviour of other people, (b) the need to learn that other people can be trusted and that how other people react to one's behaviour is important and needs to be taken into account, (c) the need to learn and to practice age-appropriate social skills, especially those which are necessary for the development and maintenance of positive relationships with peers and with adults and (d) the need to catch up as quickly as possible wilso, reference should be made to the Ministry of Education initiatives that are already starting to address this, for example by providing more opportunities for parents and caregivers to take part in the Incredible Years Parenting Programme which is well researched and robust. Summary of our position on the discussion paper As we understand the discussion paper, Schools Plus is about transforming secondary schooling and strengthening partnerships between schools, tertiary education organisations, employers, industry training organisations and non-government organisations. This aims to extend the learning opportunities available to all students, and to connect young people to their next steps beyond school. For this to work well for all students additional resources will need to be made available, for example to schools. Our view is that there is good evidence that any programme to improve school retention and improve the qualifications of young people should also address important factors in very early life. A thorough review of what is known about home visiting and parenting programmes, and a clear articulation of what is known to work around treating early antisocial behaviour, should inform such a policy. This submission includes some key references, and we would be happy to provide further information around the main points raised if this would be of assistance. Yours sincerely Dr Phillipa Clark Senior Lecturer Developmental Paediatrics University of Auckland Appendix 1 References: Church Report - The Definition, Diagnosis and Treatment of Children and Youth with Severe Behaviour Difficulties. New Zealand Ministry of Education. 2003.http://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/publications/special_education/15171 Craig E, Jackson C, Han DY, NZCYES Steering Committee. Monitoring the Health of New Zealand Children and Young People: Indicator Handbook. 2007. Auckland: Paediatric Society of New Zealand, New Zealand Child and Youth Epidemiology Service. Ka Hititea http://kahikitia.minedu.govt.nz/kahikitia/default.htm McCain MN, Mustard JF. Early Years Study: Final Report. Canadian institute for Advanced Research, Toronto, 1999. www.childsec.gov.on.ca/newsrel/reporten.pdf THE PAEDIATRIC SOCIETY OF NEW ZEALAND Secretariat Email:Denise Tringham P O Box 22 234 Wellington 6441 Tel: (04) 938 4827 Fax: : (04) 976 4827 psnz@paradise.net.nz PAGE  PAGE 4  Paediatric Society of New Zealand Submission on Schools Plus Page  PAGE 3  Health of our children: Wealth of our nation tvfhprtvxz|"(\RTndx dx77\T$&Ԫ֪تܪު24dxn "Fȷʷ̷ηҷԷַطڷ ҹԹ<>z|~n@&n@&nterature review (2007). Topics include  Participation in Early Childhood Education. The importance of these very early years is recognised in Ka Hikitia. Ka Hikitia is mentioned as an underpinning document for the Schools Plus discussion paper as it reнҽ >^4$$\u+#$ $  $ !Sn# $ !Sn# $x$ $ ¿Ŀƿȿʿ̿οпҿԿֿ $h !n#h&P#$ !lates to Maori. The importance of good accessible preschool education should be explicitly articulated as applying to other groups of children too, and again all interventions should be evidence based. Improving access to early childhood education, and improving the quality of such education using the available evidence base should form part of the Schoosl Plus policy. Services for young people with challenging behaviour are inadequate and this needs to be addressed. It is recognised that it is bes@dBdDdFdHdxxxxxyy0y2y4y6yyy{{||}}~~ & F177nn@&Oh+'0p   , 8 DPX`h TAX INVOICEAX racpNVOacp Normal.dotDenised23iMicrosoft Word 8.0@캃@Zl@! @}fmsg723vidc.M263vidc.M261msacm.msaudio1msac՜.+,D՜.+,< hp  racpO<"   TAX INVOICE Title 6> _PID_GUIDAN{FC9D91A9-89DD-4101-8B8F-93B17F452D7E}msacm.msaudio1msacqqqqrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrsssssss&t "$( "$(ֳֳֳ 5B*KH$0JCJmHnH0JCJj0JCJUCJjUmHnH 0JmHnH0J j0JU5B*CJOJQJB*CJOJQJ 5OJQJ(&( &( @& " "interventions, 43 qqqqrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrsssssss&t "$( "$(BDFJֳֳֳֳ 5B*KH$0JCJmHnH0JCJj0JCJUCJjUmHnH 0JmHnH0J j0JU5B*CJOJQJB*CJOJQJ 5OJQJ,&( &(HJ @& " "interventions, 43 ugh the area is very complex. ls13 racpDenise [\@\ Normal)$*$dH$7$8$ n#@OJQJmH nH00 Heading 1$@&500 Heading 2$@&>* Heading 3p$$ \R" b2> Y!r"B%(*-0R3"68;>bA2DGI*$@&a$56@CJ00 Heading 4$@&CJ44 Heading 5$@&5CJ44 Heading 6$@&5CJ:: Heading 7$$@&a$5CJ66 Heading 8$$@&a$5<A@< Default Paragraph FontFF Address$a$5OJQJhmH sH tH u0@0 Header  !CJ0 @0 Footer  !CJ(U@!( Hyperlink>*B*8V@18 FollowedHyperlink>*B* RBBR Body Text$ p@ *$1$a$@htH uN>RN Title$ p@ *$1$a$5CJ0htH u.Pb. Body Text 2CJbCrb Body Text Indent($ 0*$^`a$@CJ4Q4 Body Text 3$a$CJ W@ Strong5&)@& Page Number(O( HTML Cite6]# 2#2:d #*W(4?@AB%&` a b c d e f   9:}~!"#$456789:Lv% O !!!!!!n"o"p"q"s""""""""""""" #!#"###$#-#.#/#:#>#?##########################BBBBB1 BB1 B`B`Bt to address all behaviour problems at a young age, and that treatment becomes harder and less successful as the age of the affected young person increased. To quote the review by Church (2003)  The research reviewed in this report shows that the task of halting antisocial development and accelerating social development becomes increasingly more complex, more costly, and less likely to succeed the older the child becomes. A number of studies have shown that, prior to school entry it is possible to halt antisocial development and accelerate prosocial development in 75% to 80% of antisocial children. Between the ages of 5 and 7 years, the success rate of the most effective interventions drops to 65-70%, and between the ages of 8 and 12 years the success rate for the most effective interventions falls to 45% to 50%. During adolescence, the most effective interventions succeed in rehabilitating only a small fraction of the children who were engaging in antisocial behaviour at school entry. These figures also support a stance that evidence based approaches to behaviour and social problems are more cost effective when instituted early. Moreover, the review found that treatments in place in New Zealand in the 1970s did not appear to have succeeded in preventing children growing up with ongoing severe behaviour problems. Church summarises the literature reviewed as suggesting that  children with severe antisocial behaviour difficulties are likely to have four major types of special teaching needs. These are (a) the need to practise responding in prosocial (rather than antisocial) ways to the behaviour of other people, (b) the need to learn that other people can be trusted and that how other people react to one's behaviour is important and needs to be taken into account, (c) the need to learn and to practice age-appropriate social skills, especially those which are necessary for the development and maintenance of positive relationships with peers and with adults and (d) the need to catch up as quickly as possible with respect to missing academic skills, especially in reading, writing, and maths. Increased access to good quality evidence based behaviour and parenting programmes should be part of the articulated Schools Plus philosophy. Also, reference should be made to the Ministry of Education initiatives that are already starting to address this, for example by providing more opportunities for parents and caregivers to take part in the Incredible Years Parenting Programme which is well researched and robust. Summary of our position on the discussion paper As we understand the discussion paper, Schools Plus is about transforming secondary schooling and strengthening partnerships between schools, tertiary education organisations, employers, industry trainingth respect to missing academic skills, especially in reading, writing, and maths. Increased access to good quality evidence based behaviour and parenting programmes should be part of the articulated Schools Plus philosophy. Also, reference should be made to the Ministry of Education initiatives that are already starting to address this, for example by providing more opportunities for parents and caregivers to take part in the Incredible Years Parenting Programme which is well researched and robust. Summary of our position on the discussion paper As we understand the discussion paper, Schools Plus is about transforming secondary schooling and strengthening partnerships between schools, tertiary education organisations, employers, industry training organisations and non-government organisations. This aims to extend the learning opportunities available to all students, and to connect young people to their next steps beyond school. For this to work well for all students additional resources will need to be made available, for example to schools. Our view is that there is good evidence that any programme to improve school retention and improve the qualifications of young people should also address important factors in very early life. A thorough review of what is known about home visiting and parenting programmes, and a clear articulation of what is known to work around treating early antisocial behaviour, should inform such a policy. This submission includes some key references, and we would be happy to provide further information around the main points raised if this would be of assistance. Yours sincerely Dr Phillipa Clark Senior Lecturer Developmental Paediatrics University of Auckland Appendix 1 References: Church Report - The Definition, Diagnosis and Treatment of Children and Youth with Severe Behaviour Difficulties. New Zealand Ministry of Education. 2003.http://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/publications/special_education/15171 Craig E, Jackson C, Han DY, NZCYES Steeֿ468:<>@BD^`7nn@&$ !ring Committee. Monitoring the Health of New Zealand Children and Young People: Indicator Handbook. 2007. Auckland: Paediatric Society of New Zealand, New Zealand Child and Youth Epidemiology Service. Ka Hititea http://kahikitia.minedu.govt.nz/kahikitia/default.htm McCain MN, Mustard JF. Early Years Study: Final Report. Canadian institute for Advanced Research, Toronto, 1999. www.childsec.gov.on.ca/newsrel/reporten.pdf THE PAEDIATRIC SOCIETY OF NEW ZEALAND Secretariat Email:Denise Tringham P O Box 22 234 Wellington 6441 Tel: (04) 938 4827 Fax: : (04) 976 4827 psnz@paradise.net.nz PAGE  PAGE 4  Paediatric Society of New Zealand Submission on Schools Plus Page  PAGE 3  Health of our children: Wealth of our nation `rtFH|~8:BDFHJLNndx dx7\7 & F17N.$&xzfh^ ` ~ dxnhrt NZ\bdf{xCJjUmHnH 0JmHnH0J j0JU5B*CJOJQJB*CJOJQJ5B*CJ(OJQJ5B*CJ$OJQJ 5OJQJj5OJQJUmHnH0JmH 0J6mH 6B*mHnH mH6B*B* 5B*KH$B*KH$5CJnH 5,~  pn@&n@&n \^`bf $ !Sn# $ !Sn# $x$ $ nn@&n@& organisations and non-government organisations. This aims to extend the learning opportunities available to all students, and to connect young people to their next steps beyond school. For this to work well for all students additional resources will need to be made available, for example to schools. Our view is that there is good evidence that any programme to improve school retention and improve the qualifications of young people should also address important factors in very early life. A thorough revi @hh&P#$ !4$$\u+#$ $  $ !Sn# $ !Sn# "$ ! ! $h !n#@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ !o)V Rf bqJ#P} 39d %(w)*QdZx4h)KRSTj\~.rP< d h,N[ac@dTֿ`N~ "r6Ljohrs&J "$%MNOQRS{|~    45678:;abcefg%!*!UnknownStaffDenise!!!!T@  @v  ^( =z43 t CE%"  S"8   BCqDELFVSS?-;lbn2qk\D@ORQ8Q* gw  W <b14\5q<O>B 1 8w1N/ : f 1  y?  u M  4  `6U:LsNA_cknkAehS)8Z' sZ' *b?@`CE%"D   TB CnDExFf%Ip,0A  K *   8 h  L  D kk nPn&k X>>@@`4B "DH2   #  #$DH2   # | D\  3 f "\  3 b "bB  c $DjJ^"0( ? B S  ?#!=^tuD$t#u _Hlt199729483 _Hlt199729484J"J"#@@K"K"#!!!!!m"q"#### S `   hj "!$!d!i!!!!m"q""" ######Denise|C:\Documents and Settings\Denise\WORK\PSNZ Docs\Submissions and Position Statements\2008\PSNZ Submission on Schools Plus.docDenise|C:\Documents and Settings\Denise\WORK\PSNZ Docs\Submissions and Position Statements\2008\PSNZ Submission on Schools Plus.docDenise|C:\Documents and Settings\Denise\WORK\PSNZ Docs\Submissions and Position Statements\2008\PSNZ Submission on Schools Plus.docDenise|C:\Documents and Settings\Denise\WORK\PSNZ Docs\Submissions and Position Statements\2008\PSNZ Submission on Schools Plus.docDenise|C:\Documents and Settings\Denise\WORK\PSNZ Docs\Submissions and Position Statements\2008\PSNZ Submission on Schools Plus.docDenise|C:\Documents and Settings\Denise\WORK\PSNZ Docs\Submissions and Position Statements\2008\PSNZ Submission on Schools Plus.docDenise|C:\Documents and Settings\Denise\WORK\PSNZ Docs\Submissions and Position Statements\2008\PSNZ Submission on Schools Plus.docDenise|C:\Documents and Settings\Denise\WORK\PSNZ Docs\Submissions and Position Statements\2008\PSNZ Submission on Schools Plus.docDenise|C:\Documents and Settings\Denise\WORK\PSNZ Docs\Submissions and Position Statements\2008\PSNZ Submission on Schools Plus.docDenise|C:\Documents and Settings\Denise\WORK\PSNZ Docs\Submissions and Position Statements\2008\PSNZ Submission on Schools Plus.doc1|} D~NsrtZ*PpTVxGzf]쑦m "W 1 VKx=FP v  GkgfMe0(+"K44:WB+,"|e)ʱ{n -  :. 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PLP^P`LhH.hh^h`o(. hh^h`OJQJo(h88^8`OJQJo(hHh^`OJQJ^Jo(hHoh  ^ `OJQJo(hHh  ^ `OJQJo(hHhxx^x`OJQJo(hHohHH^H`OJQJo(hHh^`OJQJo(hHh^`OJQJo(hHoh^`OJQJo(hHhh^h`OJQJo(hH^`OJQJ^Jo(hHo^`OJQJo(hH^`OJQJo(hHXX^X`OJQJ^Jo(hHo((^(`OJQJo(hH  ^ `OJQJo(hH  ^ `OJQJ^Jo(hHo^`OJQJo(hHh^`OJQJo(hHhPP^P`OJQJo(hHh  ^ `OJQJo(hHh  ^ `OJQJo(hHh^`OJQJ^Jo(hHoh^`OJQJo(hHh``^``OJQJo(hHh00^0`OJQJ^Jo(hHoh^`OJQJo(hHh hh^h`hH.h 8ew of what is known about home visiting and parenting programmes, and a clear articulation of what is known to work around treating early antisocial behaviour, should inform such a policy. This submission includes some key references, and we would be happy to provide further information around the main points raised if this would be of assistance. Yours sincerely Dr Phillipa Clark Senior Lecturer Developmental Paediatrics University of Auckland Appendix 1 References: Church Report - The Definition, Diagnosis and Treatment of Children and Youth with Severe Behaviour Difficulties. New Zealand Ministry of Education. 2003.http://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/publications/special_education/15171 Craig E, Jackson C, Han DY, NZCYES Steering Committee. Monitoring the Health of New Zealand Children and Young People: Indicator Handbook. 2007. Auckland: Paediatric Society of New Zealand, New Zealand Child and Youth Epidemiology Service. Ka Hititea http://kahikitia.minedu.govt.nz/kahikitia/default.htm McCain MN, Mustard JF. Early Years Study: Final Report. Canadian institute for Advanced Research, Toronto, 1999. www.childsec.gov.on.ca/newsrel/reporten.pdf THE PAEDIATRIC SOCIETY OF NEW ZEALAND Secretariat Email:Denise Tringham P O Box 22 234 Wellington 6441 Tel: (04) 938 4827 Fax: : (04) 976 4827 psnz@paradise.net.nz PAGE  PAGE 4  Paediatric Society of New Zealand Submission on Schools Plus Page  PAGE 3  Health of our children: Wealth of our nation r6t666F8H88|:~:8<:<BADAFAHAJALANADDEE.F$J&JLLndx dx7LMMUUxXzX^^^^^^bbfbhb^f`f~iijjjjjjjjdxnjjjjkpkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkmmmoo @& " @& "n@&n@&noopp p\q^q`qbqfqqqqqqqqqr r@rhr$  $ !Sn# $ !Sn# $x$ $  " @& "8^8`hH.h L^`LhH.h   ^ `hH.h   ^ `hH.h xLx^x`LhH.h HH^H`hH.h ^`hH.h L^`LhH.hrrrrrrrrrrrrssssss $h !n#h&P#$ !4$$\u+# $ !Sn#$ ssssssssssssttttt t"t$t&t & @& " "$ ! !(&P . A!"5#$%n+ 0&P . A!"#$%n+ 0&P . 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Submissions

The Paediatric Society believes all children and youth should, by right, attain optimal physical, mental and social health and wellbeing.  By working as a coordinated national network of health professionals the Society dedicates its efforts and resources to making official submissions to both Government and Non-Government organisations on issues that will impact on the health and wellbeing of children and young people.

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