ࡱ>  bjbj ]3!!T T LS"!!f""""e)e)e)SSSSSSS$ WYJ7S.((|..7S!!""bSO5O5O5.R!"!R"SO5.SO5O5!Ns"1R"Gulliver PJ200736436436427Gulliver PJ,Simpson JC, Injury Prevention Research Unit Fact Sheet 40: Child injury deaths and hospitalisations New Zealand Health Information Service Mortality Collection and National Minimum Data Set2007April DunedinUniversity of Otago(Gulliver PJ & Simpson JC, 2007). In 1995 the New Zealand Government ratified its commitment the United Nations Convention for the Rights of the Child (UNCROC). Government s 2008 Third and Fourth Progress Report to the United Nations on our compliance to UNCROC states the numbers of New Zealand children dying from motor vehicle crashes remains high. This report also identifies there is a high incidence of injury to Mori children from road transport causes and that this is an issue to be addressed  ADDIN EN.CITE Ministry of Youth Development200835435435427Ministry of Youth Development,Third and Fourth Periodic Report for the United Nations Committee for the Convention of the Rights of the Child2008New Zealand Government(Ministry of Youth Development, 2008). A 2004 Ministry of Social Development Report on indicators for child wellbeing stated that in 2002 the mortality rate from unintentional injury per 100,000 children aged 014 years was eight for non-Mori, and seventeen for Mori tamariki. This finding is also highlighted within the Safer Journeys discussion document  For example Mori are almost twice as likely to die or be seriously injured in road crashes, with Mori children and young people being particularly affected page nine.  ADDIN EN.CITE Ministry of Social Development200435335335327Ministry of Social Development,Children and Young People; Indicators of well being report2004WellingtonMinistry of Social Development Te Manatu-Whakahiato Ora New Zealand GovernmentISBN 0-478-18349-6Website: www.msd.govt.nzMinistry of Transport200936736736727Ministry of Transport,Safer Journeys Discussion Document 2009WellingtonMinistry of Transport Te Manatu Waka, New Zealand Government(Ministry of Social Development, 2004; Ministry of Transport, 2009). The New Zealand Paediatric Society strongly urges the Government to address the road safety resource and distribution issues that result in children from lower socio-economic communities and Mori tamariki experiencing almost twice the risk from road traffic injury and death  ADDIN EN.CITE  ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Collins & Kearns, 2009; Craig E, Jackson C, Han DY, & Committee, 2007; Ministry of Social Development, 2004; Roberts I, Norton R, & Taua B, 1996) . Overall New Zealands child unintentional injury rates have been improving for children aged younger than fifteen years old. However a UNICEF international report for the World Health Organisation suggests we are not performing as well as other economically comparable countries. In 2007 our comparative position for preventing the unintentional child death of children and youth aged younger than 20 years old was recorded as being 25th out of 25 OECD countries  ADDIN EN.CITE UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre200713413413427UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre,Child poverty in perspective; an overview of child well-being in rich countries; A comprehensive assessment of the lives and well-being of children and adolescents in the economically advanced nationsReport Card No 72007Florence, Italy(UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre, 2007). Child car restraints In the Safer Journeys discussion document the New Zealand Transport Agency asks Do you support aligning our requirements for child car restraints with international best practice? New Zealand Paediatric Society strongly urges the New Zealand Government to align our child car restraint regulation with international best practice. The Society also strongly urges Government to support the effective distribution of child car restraints to high needs families and communities with high Mori populations. Correctly used child car restraints save children s lives and reduce the likelihood of their serious injury and hospitalisation in the event of a motor vehicle crash  ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Safekids New Zealand</Author><Year>200936936936927Safekids New Zealand,Fact Sheet: Child motor vehicle passenger injuries2009Safekids New Zealandhttp://www.safekids.org.nz/index.php/pi_pageid/27Winston F200013713713717Winston F,Durban D,Kallan, MollThe Danger of Premature Graduation to Seat Belts for Young ChildrenPediatricsPediatrics1179 - 11831056motor vehicle safety, child safety seat, seat belt, booster seat2000June(Safekids New Zealand, 2009; Winston F, Durban D, Kallan, & Moll, 2000). Regulations requiring the mandatory use of child car restraints that are enforced with distribution programmes are effective and have a positive cost benefit outcome for Government. Child car seats for children older than the age of five years prevent child injury and save Government money  ADDIN EN.CITE  ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Government of the United Kingdom, 2005; Miller T, Zaloshnja E, & Hendrie D, 2006; National Transport Commission, 2007) New Zealand Road Rules currently require the mandatory use of child car restraints only up until a childs fifth birthday. Following a childs fifth birthday child car restraints are required only if they are available  ADDIN EN.CITE New Zealand Transport Agency200936836836812New Zealand Transport Agency,New Zealand Transport AgencyChild Restraints; Fact Sheet 72009August2009WellingtonNew Zealand Governmenthttp://www.landtransport.govt.nz/factsheets/07.html(New Zealand Transport Agency, 2009). This does not align with international recommendation for best practice  ADDIN EN.CITE National Transport Commission200737237237246National Transport Commission, Australian Road Rules 7th Amendment Package Regulatory Impact Statement2007Melbourne(National Transport Commission, 2007). International best practice suggests Governments need to regulate for the mandatory use of child car restraints based on height. Best practice guidelines recommend that most children are only ready to transition safely to an adult seat belt once they reach a standing height of 148 cm, or a sitting height of 74 cm. Weight is sometimes mentioned; however height is considered the more important indicator. The height of 148cms corresponds to the dimensions of an average 11-year-old. In Europe and many states in America, child restraint laws are being upgraded to require the use of seats from 6 to 9 years of age. In the United Kingdom and Germany the law extends to a childs 12th birthday  ADDIN EN.CITE Cameron L200694949417Cameron L,Segedin E,Nuthall G,Thompson J,Safe restraint of the child passengerJournal of Paediatrics and Child HealthJournal of Paediatrics and Child Health752-757422006(Cameron L, Segedin E, Nuthall G, & Thompson J, 2006). Child passengers are more vulnerable to injury or death if prematurely graduated out of a child car seat when they are not yet tall enough to receive the full benefit of the adult safety belt. Most children who are older than five years but younger than twelve, are usually shorter than the recommended height of 148 cms and do not correctly fit the adult safety belt. They have a relatively short thigh to knee length and a tendency to slouch in the seat. They are also more likely to be thrown forward against the interior of the car, or ejected. These factors increase the likelihood of injury in a car crash  ADDIN EN.CITE  ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Brown J & Bilston L, 2009; Durbin D, Elliot M, & Winston F, 2003; Klinich, Pritz, Weltry, & Burton, 1994). Car manufacturers include height recommendations in car safety manuals. The Volkswagen AG Golf Safety Handbook 2002 states, children less than 1.5 meters tall are best protected by seat cushions with side head restraints (i.e. booster seats) in conjunction with properly worn seat belts. In 2009 the New Zealand Transport Agency also included this advice to families within Fact Sheet number seven  ADDIN EN.CITE Land Transport New ZealandFebruary 200577777717Land Transport New Zealand,Fact Sheet 7 - Child RestraintsFebruary 2005Volkswagen200237437437427Volkswagen,VolkswagonVolkswagen AG Golf Safety Handbook 2002Geneva(Land Transport New Zealand, February 2005; Volkswagen, 2002). New Zealands alignment with international best practice to require the use of booster seats would mean our child car occupant fatalities might be reduced by as much as a third (28%)  ADDIN EN.CITE Elliot200610210210217Elliot, Kallan, Durbin, WinstonEffectiveness of child safety seats vs seatbelts in reducing risk for death in child in passenger vehicle crashesThe Archives Pediatrics Adolesc MedicineThe Archives Pediatrics Adolesc Medicine617-6191602006June(Elliot, Kallan, Durbin, & Winston, 2006). This would equate to the saving the lives of between one to four New Zealand children every year. Hospitalisations would also be reduced. Australian research shows there is a higher rate of spinal and neck injury within the group of children younger than the age of twelve, who are injured in car crashes  ADDIN EN.CITE Brown J200935935935917Brown J,Bilston L,Spinal Injury in Motor Vehicle Crashes: Elevated risk persists up to 12 years of ageArch. Dis. Child.Arch. Dis. Child.200926 Mar(Brown J & Bilston L, 2009). Height and /or age are used most frequently by Government transport agencies using best practice as the basis for their mandatory requirements. Most regulate for both height and age. While all are older than five years, upper age limits vary between jurisdictions. This is because these agencies have implemented child car restraint regulation based on anthropomorphic, population and public policy research. They use this information to decide what best suits their countrys available child car restraint products, car fleet, enforcement capacity, demographics and resources. Then they regulate accordingly. Safekids urges the NZ Government to make a similar, full assessment of New Zealand conditions. Families in lower socioeconomic groups are less likely to use child car restraints for older children unless Government provides mandatory regulation coupled with robust distribution schemes  ADDIN EN.CITE  ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Ehiri et al., 2006; Gunn V, Phillippi R, & Cooper W, 2007; Towner E, Dowswell T, Errington G, Burkes M, & J, 2005). 2.10 New Zealand Paediatric Society strongly urges Government to provide child car restraint products for low income communities, through robust education and distribution programmes.  ADDIN EN.REFLIST Bibliography Brown J, & Bilston L. (2009). Spinal Injury in Motor Vehicle Crashes: Elevated risk persists up to 12 years of age. Arch. Dis. Child. Cameron L, Segedin E, Nuthall G, & Thompson J. (2006). Safe restraint of the child passenger. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 42, 752-757. Collins, D., & Kearns, R. A. (2009). Walking school buses in the Auckland region: A longitudinal assessment. Transport Policy. Craig E, Jackson C, Han DY, & Committee, N. S. (2007). Monitoring the health of New Zealand children and young people: Indicator Handbook. Auckland: Paediatric Society of New Zealand, New Zealand Child and Youth Epidemiology Service Durbin D, Elliot M, & Winston F. (2003). Belt-Positioning Booster Seats and Reduction in Risk of Injury Among Children in Vehicle Crashes. Journal American Medical Association, 289(21), 2835 - 2840. Ehiri, J. E., Ejere, H. O., Magnussen, L., Emusu, D., King, W., & Osberg, J. S. (2006). Interventions for promoting booster seat use in four to eight year olds traveling in motor vehicles. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 1. Elliot, Kallan, Durbin, & Winston. (2006). Effectiveness of child safety seats vs seatbelts in reducing risk for death in child in passenger vehicle crashes. The Archives Pediatrics Adolesc Medicine, 160, 617-619. Government of the United Kingdom. (2005). Department of Transport Amendment to seat belt wearing regulations. London: Department for Transport. Gulliver PJ, & Simpson JC. (2007). Fact Sheet 40: Child injury deaths and hospitalisations Dunedin: University of Otago. Gunn V, Phillippi R, & Cooper W. (2007). Improvement in booster seat use in Tennessee. Pediatrics, 119, 131-136. Klinich, Pritz, B., Weltry, & Burton. (1994). Study of older child restraint / booster seat fit and NASS injury analysis. In N. H. T. S. Administration (Ed.): US Department of Transportation. Land Transport New Zealand. (February 2005). Fact Sheet 7 - Child Restraints. Miller T, Zaloshnja E, & Hendrie D. (2006). Cost-outcome analysis of booster seats for auto occupants aged 4 to 7 years. Pediatrics, 118(5), 1994-1998. Ministry of Social Development. (2004). Children and Young People; Indicators of well being report. Wellington: Ministry of Social Development Te Manatu-Whakahiato Ora New Zealand Government. Ministry of Transport. (2009). Safer Journeys Discussion Document Wellington: Ministry of Transport Te Manatu Waka, New Zealand Government. Ministry of Youth Development. (2008). Third and Fourth Periodic Report for the United Nations Committee for the Convention of the Rights of the Child: New Zealand Government. National Transport Commission. (2007). Australian Road Rules 7th Amendment Package Regulatory Impact Statement. Melbourne. New Zealand Transport Agency. (2009). Child Restraints; Fact Sheet 7. Retrieved August, 2009, from  HYPERLINK "http://www.landtransport.govt.nz/factsheets/07.html" http://www.landtransport.govt.nz/factsheets/07.html Roberts I, Norton R, & Taua B. (1996). Child pedestrian injury rates:The importance of exposure to risk relating to socioeconomic and ethnic differences, in Auckland, New Zealand. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 50, 162-165. Safekids New Zealand. (2009). Fact Sheet: Child motor vehicle passenger injuries&'23BCD+ , ; ͽߊteTE9EthCB*CJ^JphhC{hCB*CJ^Jph hC{hCB*CJ\^JphhChCB*CJ^JphhC{hCCJ^JhC{hC^JaJhC{hC5^JaJhCOJQJmH sH hChCCJ^JmH sH hCCJ^JmH sH hChC6CJ^JmH sH #hChC0J-6CJ^JmH sH hC5^JaJhChCCJ^JhC5CJ^JhW'3CDE+ , Z O ; & F% ddd*$-DM [$\$gd?)dgdCgdC pr;>@B &ACMPQ\eosSTtuyT\·ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΎΎΎրooooo hahCCJOJQJ^JaJhCCJOJQJ^JaJjhCCJU^Jh*hCCJ^Jh?)5CJ^JhC5CJ^JhC{hCCJ^Jh|hC5CJ^JhCCJ^JhahCCJ^Jh1hCCJ^JhChC{hCB*CJ^Jph+ qr=>@Axyu ,$h^ha$gdC ,$ & F$a$gdCdgdC d*$gd?)0gd?) hd^hgd?) & F$ d*$gd?)dgd?)3 & F$ B R" b2> Y!r"B%(*-0R3"68;>bA2DGId<*$gd?) \^`jOPTZ_im 02<>NPᱥ||k hKVhC6B*CJ^Jph# h_hCB*CJ^Jph# h_hCCJ^JhJhCB*CJ^Jph# hCB*CJ^Jph# hCCJ^J)jhahCCJOJQJU^JaJhCCJaJhSchCCJaJ hahCCJOJQJ^JaJhCCJOJQJ^JaJ*$%v#w######$%%%%%%%%&&&&&&'!'7'Y'&(0(H(ַ~sb hahCCJOJQJ^JaJh|hCCJ^JjhCCJU^JjhCCJU^JhahCCJ^JhCCJ^JhahCCJ^Jh_hCCJ^J&jhJhCB*CJU^Jph# hCB*CJ^Jph# hKVhC6B*CJ^Jph# hKVhC6CJ^J!##&&+++(.*.55777 d*$gd?)0gd?)dgdCdgd?)6$ & F$ B R" b2> Y!r"B%(*-0R3"68;>bA2DGId<*$a$gdC,$a$gdC hd^hgdC & F$ d*$gd?)H(J(d(e(s+t++++++++++++,,,:,>,k,m,--. .(.*..v/x/5555526H6I6a6s66677%7ѻѻѻѯћѐѻxxxфxjhCCJU^JhVThC5CJ^JhYKhCCJ^Jh[RIhCCJ^JhC5CJ^JhYT"hC5CJ^JhYT"hCCJ^J hJS6hChChCCJ^JjhahCCJU^JhahCCJ^JhahCCJH*^J/%7&7:7;7=777777 884888;;;;><?<>>>>>>>>>D?F????q@@@ A&A-A1AQAcApArA뫷렑t hAzhCB*CJH*^JphhCB*CJ^Jphh_hCB*CJ^Jphh_hCCJ^Jh_hC5CJ^JhC5CJ^JhVThC5CJ^Jh5CJ^Jh?)CJ^Jj hCCJU^JhCCJ^JjhCCJU^J-777>>DDGGMM8V9VXXX$ d*$^a$gdHm*dgd?) d7$8$H$gdC & F$ d*$7$8$H$gd?) hd^hgd?) & F$ d*$gd?)dgdC$ hd*$^ha$gdHm*rA|A}ADDDDDDD$E)E{E!G"G1G2GFGGGIGGGGG7HHHHHHHHHHHHMINIMMMMMMǾǶǶ{{{{ohhC5CJ^JhYhCCJ^JhC6CJ^JhYhC6CJ^Jj:hCCJU^JjhCCJU^JhCCJ^JhC5CJ^JhVThC5CJ^Jh_hCB*CJ^Jph jhCB*CJU^JphhCB*CJ^Jph+M NsNzN{NQQRRISJSVV4V5V9VVAW|XXXXRYVYYYYYYYYYZZZ]Z^ZbZcZZZZZZZZZ [ [[[ʿ|||||hO-hC5CJ^JhC{hC5CJ^Jh.5CJ^Jh.h.CJ^JjPhCCJU^Jh5CJ^JhVThCCJ^JhVThC5CJ^JjhCCJU^JhCCJ^JhhC5CJ^JhC5CJ^J0X]Z^Z[[[[[@[A[[[\\]^g_=``Fa0d^`0gdC0d^`0gd. $da$gdC d*$`gd?)dgdC & F$ d*$^`gd?)[[[[[1[2[A[[[%\P\\\]c]O^x^H_e_`2``(aaa>cMcccCraig E20079797976Craig E,Jackson C,Han DY,NZCYES Steering CommitteeMonitoring the health of New Zealand children and young people: Indicator Handbook2007AucklandPaediatric Society of New Zealand, New Zealand Child and Youth Epidemiology Service Collins200936636636617Collins, D.Kearns, R. A.Walking school buses in the Auckland region: A longitudinal assessmentTransport PolicyTransport Policy2009Roberts I199636536536517Roberts I,Norton R,Taua B,Child pedestrian injury rates:The importance of ‘exposure to risk’ relating to socioeconomic and ethnic differences, in Auckland, New ZealandJournal of Epidemiology and Community HealthJournal of Epidemiology and Community Health162-165501996Ministry of Social Development200435335335327Ministry of Social Development,Children and Young People; Indicators of well being report2004WellingtonMinistry of Social Development Te Manatu-Whakahiato Ora New Zealand GovernmentISBN 0-478-18349-6Website: www.msd.govt.nzDNational Transport Commission200737237237246National Transport Commission, Australian Road Rules 7th Amendment Package Regulatory Impact Statement2007MelbourneGovernment of the United Kingdom200537137137146Government of the United Kingdom,Zone 2/11, Great Minster House 76 Marsham Street Telephone: 020 7944 2046 E-mail: road.safety@dft.gsi.gov.ukDepartment of Transport Amendment to seat belt wearing regulations2005LondonDepartment for TransportRoad User Safety Division 2Miller T200611311311317Miller T,Zaloshnja E,Hendrie D,Cost-outcome analysis of booster seats for auto occupants aged 4 to 7 yearsPediatricsPediatrics1994-199811852006 DBrown J200935935935917Brown J,Bilston L,Spinal Injury in Motor Vehicle Crashes: Elevated risk persists up to 12 years of ageArch. Dis. Child.Arch. Dis. Child.200926 MarDurbin D200399999917Durbin D, Elliot M, Winston F,Belt-Positioning Booster Seats and Reduction in Risk of Injury Among Children in Vehicle CrashesJournal American Medical AssociationJournal American Medical Association2835 - 2840289212003June 4Klinich199410810810846Klinich,Pritz, Beebe,Weltry,Burton,National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Study of older child restraint / booster seat fit and NASS injury analysis1994US Department of Transportation* DEhiri200637337337317Ehiri, J. E.Ejere, H. O.Magnussen, L.Emusu, D.King, W.Osberg, J. S.Interventions for promoting booster seat use in four to eight year olds traveling in motor vehiclesCochrane Database Syst RevCochrane Database Syst Rev12006Gunn V200710410410417Gunn V,Phillippi R,Cooper W,Improvement in booster seat use in TennesseePediatricsPediatrics131-1361192007Towner E20052552552556Towner E,Dowswell T,Errington G,Burkes M,Towner JCommunity Child Health,Department of Child Health Injuries in children aged 0-14 years and inequalitiesA report prepared for the Health Development AgencyInequalitiesInjuriesreport2005LondonHealth Development Agency, University of Newcastle upon Tyne; www.hda.nhs.ukDyK yK hhttp://www.landtransport.govt.nz/factsheets/07.html|$$If!vh5555#v#v#v#v:V 55554 ^1  666666666666666666666666666666666666666666 6666666666 666666666666 I6666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666662 0@P`p2( 0@P`p 0@P`p 0@P`p 0@P`p 0@P`p 0@P`p8XV~_HmH nH sH tH b`b ENormal$ d*$a$ @CJOJQJ_HmH sH tH 88 E0 Heading 1$@&588 E0 Heading 2$@&>*@ E0 Heading 3g$\R" b2> Y!r"B%(*-0R3"68;>bA2DGI@& 56CJ44 E0 Heading 4$@&88 E0 Heading 5$@&5<< E0 Heading 6$@&5CJ<< E0 Heading 7 $@&a$5<< E0 Heading 8 $@&a$5DA`D Default Paragraph FontRi@R 0 Table Normal4 l4a (k ( 0No List ^^ nMHeading 1 Char*5@CJ KH OJPJQJ\^JaJ tH `` nMHeading 2 Char,56@CJOJPJQJ\]^JaJtH ZZ nMHeading 3 Char&5@CJOJPJQJ\^JaJtH Z!Z nMHeading 4 Char&5@CJOJPJQJ\^JaJtH `1` nMHeading 5 Char,56@CJOJPJQJ\]^JaJtH RAR nMHeading 6 Char5@OJPJQJ\^JtH TQT nMHeading 7 Char @CJOJPJQJ^JaJtH ZaZ nMHeading 8 Char&6@CJOJPJQJ]^JaJtH :: E0Addressa$ 5mH sH 8@8 E0Header !CJBB nM0 Header Char@OJQJaJtH 8 8 E0Footer !CJFF ${:0 Footer Char@OJQJ^JmH sH :U@: E0 Hyperlink>*B*^JphJVJ E0FollowedHyperlink>*B* ^Jph@B@ E0 Body Text p@ 1$HH nM0Body Text Char@OJQJaJtH B>B !E0Title  p@ 1$a$5CJ0VV nM Title Char*5@CJ KHOJPJQJ\^JaJ tH 2P"2 #E0 Body Text 2"L1L "nM0Body Text 2 Char@OJQJaJtH LCBL %E0Body Text Indent$0^`VQV $nM0Body Text Indent Char@OJQJaJtH 6Qb6 'E0 Body Text 3&a$PqP &nM0Body Text 3 Char@CJOJQJaJtH ,W, E0Strong5^JD D E0 No Spacing)CJ_HmH sH tH RYR +@0 Document Map*M CJOJQJ^JJJ *nM0Document Map Char@CJaJtH bob CDefault ,7$8$H$-B*CJOJ QJ ^J _HaJmH phsH tH .X@. 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" # $ Oh+'0  4 @ L Xdlt| TAX INVOICEracp Normal.dotmT10Microsoft Office Word@[@ι?@,?@9?O՜.+,D՜.+,< hp  racp0]  TAX INVOICE Title 8@ _PID_HLINKSA>k74http://www.landtransport.govt.nz/factsheets/07.htmlB  !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~Root Entry F-   F'Microsoft Office Word 97-2003 Document MSWordDocWord.Document.89q Paediatric Society of New Zealand: Submissions
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Submissions

The Paediatric Society believes all children and youth should, by right, attain optimal physical, mental and social health and wellbeing.  By working as a coordinated national network of health professionals the Society dedicates its efforts and resources to making official submissions to both Government and Non-Government organisations on issues that will impact on the health and wellbeing of children and young people.

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